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53 Cards in this Set

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. All of the following are defining characteristics of agency, except:A. feeling in control of one's own decisions.B. having confidence that obstacles can be overcome.C. blaming other people for one's problems.D. taking responsibility for one's self.

C. blaming other people for one's problems.

Adolescents improve their ability and tendency to consider the long-term consequences of their decisions, which is one aspectof:A. imagining their possible selves.B. future orientation.C. self-concept.D. identity formation.

B. future orientation.

Researchers have identified all of the following factors as critical components of the development of identity duringadolescence, except:A. self-esteem.B. sense of identity.C. self-conception.D. self-regulation

D. self-regulation.

Maria describes herself as an only child, as a person who likes art and music, who is shy, and who likes to read. Maria'sdescription fits best with the idea of:A. self-conception.B. self-esteem.C. self-attribution.D. self-control.

A. self-conception.

As adolescents develop, their self-conceptions become more:A. negative.B. optimistic.C. disorganized.D. differentiated

D. differentiated.

When the author of the textbook, Laurence Steinberg, says that "Some researchers have argued that the question of whetherself-esteem is stable during adolescence is a poor one," what does he mean?A. Researchers have argued that asking whether self-esteem is stable is a poor question because it is impossible to measureself-esteem, let alone measure whether it changes during adolescence.B. Researchers have argued that asking whether self-esteem is stable is a poor question because self-esteem does not changeacross development; self-esteem is one of the most stable traits.C. Researchers have argued that asking whether self-esteem is stable is a poor question because group averages often hidesubstantial differences between people.D. Researchers have argued that asking whether self-esteem is stable is poor because the answer is incredibly obvious and, asa result, it does not deserve any more scientific research.

C. Researchers have argued that asking whether self-esteem is stable is a poor question because group averages often hidesubstantial differences between people.

Which of the following is one of the characteristics that distinguish between the adolescent's and the child's self-concept?A. Adolescents tend to view the self as involving more dimensions than do children.B. Adolescents distinguish among actual, ideal, and feared selves.C. The adolescent's self varies over time and across situations.D. All of the above.

D. All of the above.

Adolescents who have more complex self-conceptions are less likely:A. to be depressed.B. to achieve more in school.C. to have lots of friends.D. to be foreclosed

A. to be depressed.

Amy, a 16-year-old girl, is shy around boys though she would really like to be more outgoing. This reflects:A. the drive toward positive self-esteem.B. the discrepancy between her ideal and actual selves.C. a false sense of self-concept.D. All of the above.

B. the discrepancy between her ideal and actual selves

Adolescents are most likely to behave __________ in romantic situations and with a classmate, and they are least likely toengage in ___________ with close friends.A. authentically; inauthentic behaviorB. authentically; authentic behaviorC. inauthentically; false-self behaviorD. inauthentically; true-self behavior

C. inauthentically; false-self behavior

. Someone who is more likely to engage in excessive false-self behavior is most likely:A. to report less emotional support from parents and peers.B. to have lower self-esteem.C. to report depressive symptoms.D. All of the above.

D. All of the above.

Which of the following is not one of the personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model?A. NeuroticismB. Openness to ExperienceC. AgreeablenessD. Gender Intensification

D. Gender Intensification

Which dimension of the Five-Factor Model measures how organized someone is?A. ExtroversionB. AgreeablenessC. NeuroticismD. Conscientiousness

D. Conscientiousness

Racial socialization, the process by which parents teach children about their ethnic identity and the experiences they mayencounter within society as a result of this identity, is thought to focus on three major themes. Which of the following is notone of these themes?A. getting along in mainstream societyB. dealing with racismC. intolerance of the majority cultureD. understanding one's own culture

C. intolerance of the majority culture

Mei was an impulsive preschooler. It is likely that, as an adolescent, she will be:A. impulsive.B. shy.C. anxious.D. well-adjusted.

A. impulsive.

How positively or negatively people feel about themselves defines:A. self-regulation.B. self-esteem.C. self-attribution.D. self-idealization.

B. self-esteem.

According to personality research presented in the textbook, there is evidence that, between adolescence and young adulthood,individuals become:A. more extraverted and less conscientious.B. less extraverted and more agreeable.C. more emotionally stable and more extraverted.D. less agreeable and more emotionally stable.

C. more emotionally stable and more extraverted.

Based on findings from research studies, compared to older adolescents (15 years and older) and preadolescents (8- to11-year-olds), which of the following statements about young adolescents' self-esteem, self-consciousness, and self-image isfalse?A. Early adolescents experience a sharp increase in self-esteem'.B. Early adolescents have lower self-esteem.C. Early adolescents are more self-conscious.D. Early adolescents have a more unstable self-image.

A. Early adolescents experience a sharp increase in self-esteem'.

Rose is transitioning from elementary into junior high school and Sally will be starting her senior year of high school in thefall. According to research presented in the textbook, who is more likely to experience disruptions in self-esteem?A. RoseB. SallyC. Rose and Sally are equally likely to experience disruptions in self-esteemD. neither Sally nor Rose is likely to experience disruptions in self-esteem

A. Rose

Which of the following is not a reason that early adolescents might experience fluctuations in self-image?A. egocentrismB. they are learning that it is not always possible to tell what people are thinking on the basis of how they act or what they sayC. because of the increased importance of peers in early adolescenceD. because early adolescents spend most of their time engaging in false-self behavior

D. because early adolescents spend most of their time engaging in false-self behavior

According to the chapter in the textbook, most researchers today believe that adolescents evaluate themselves:A. globallyB. along several distinct dimensionsC. in constant comparison to their peers and their ideal selfD. both A and B are correct

D. both A and B are correct

Dewayne's parents are worried that as he enters adolescence, his self-esteem will greatly decrease. During what time shouldDewayne's parents expect the most fluctuations in his self-image?A. When he is 8-11 years old.B. When he is 12-14 years old.C. When he is 15-18 years old.D. When he is 19-21 years old.

B. When he is 12-14 years old

According to the textbook, because _____ girls do not feel as _____ about their appearances as girls of other racialbackgrounds, these individuals typically have _____ overall self-esteem.A. White; negatively; higherB. White; insecure; lowerC. Black; negatively; higherD. Black; positively; lower

C. Black; negatively; higher

Which of the following factors is the most important predictor of overall self-esteem?A. athletic abilityB. academic abilityC. physical appearance self-esteemD. moral conduct

C. physical appearance self-esteem

Overall, which group of adolescents feels least positive about themselves?A. White femalesB. White malesC. Black femalesD. Black males

A. White females

Tony and Jeff, both Black adolescents, attend different schools. Tony attends a school where his ethnic group is in themajority and Jeff attends a predominately White school. What do studies predict about Tony and/or Jeff's self-perception?A. Tony will have fewer self-image problems than Jeff.B. Tony will have more self-image problems than Jeff.C. Both Tony and Jeff will have high self-esteem.D. Both Tony and Jeff will have low self-esteem.

A. Tony will have fewer self-image problems than Jeff.

Adolescents whose parents are not both from the same ethnic or racial group are known as ________ adolescents.A. multilingualB. culture brokeringC. maternal-raceD. multiethnic

D. multiethnic

According to the textbook, which of the following is not generally a predictor of self-esteem?A. academic achievementB. parental loveC. supportive friendsD. religious affiliation

D. religious affiliation

Which of the following statements about self-esteem in children is true?A. Having high self-esteem boosts scholastic achievement.B. High achievement in school boosts self-esteem.C. High achievement in school and high self-esteem are spuriously related.D. The direction of the effect between high achievement in school and high self-esteem is bidirectional

B. High achievement in school boosts self-esteem

Erik Erikson believed that ________ is the primary psychosocial crisis of adolescence.A. balancing a sense of trust with a sense of mistrustB. developing a sense of autonomy and the ability to do things for oneselfC. establishing a coherent sense of identityD. developing intimate personal relationships

C. establishing a coherent sense of identity

Jessica is 15 years old and spends most of her energy wondering who she is and what kind of person she will become. Eriksonwould describe her as facing the crisis called:A. basic trust versus mistrust.B. autonomy versus shame and doubt.C. industry versus inferiority.D. identity versus identity diffusion.

D. identity versus identity diffusion.

Which adolescent would be expected to have the greatest difficulty establishing a sense of identity?A. Michael, who has many alternatives available to him in many different arenasB. Melvin, who has a moderate number of alternatives available to him in a few different arenasC. Jay, who has few alternatives available to him and is expected to follow in his father's footstepsD. All of these adolescents are likely to have difficulty establishing a sense of identity.

A. Michael, who has many alternatives available to him in many different arenas

Bruce, a second-year college student, has switched majors three times. He is still undecided about what he wants to do withhis life. Bruce is in:A. a state of psychological confusion.B. a period of crystallization.C. a state of deindividuation.D. a state of psychosocial moratorium.

D. a state of psychosocial moratorium

Since Ignacio became an adolescent, he has experimented with different roles and personalities. Ignacio's parents are tellingall their friends that this is just a "phase" that he's going through. According to Erikson, this "phase" is called:A. identity foreclosure.B. psychosocial moratorium.C. identity confusion.D. negative identity

B. psychosocial moratorium.

Identity that is incoherent, disjointed, and characterized by an incomplete sense of self is called:A. false-self behavior.B. moratorium.C. identity diffusion.D. marginal identity.

C. identity diffusion.

James has flunked out of high school, has severed all of his ties with family and friends, and has no sense of where he isheaded. He also seems to have significant disruptions in his sense of time (some things seem to happen much faster than theyreally do). According to Erikson, James is experiencing:A. identity diffusion.B. negative identity.C. identity foreclosure.D. psychosocial moratorium.

B. negative identity.

Identities that are undesirable to parents and community members are referred to by Erikson as:A. negative identities.B. marginal identities.C. false identities.D. offensive identities.

A. negative identities.

Whose research supports Erikson's theory on identity development?A. PhinneyB. HarterC. MarciaD. Gilligan

A. Phinney

According to the textbook, which identity status is associated with a coherent sense of identity?A. achievementB. foreclosureC. moratoriumD. diffusion

A. achievement

Which of the following individuals would be considered to be in an identity moratorium state?A. Alexandra, who has not made firm commitments and is not currently trying to make themB. Denise, who has made identity commitments without needing a period of explorationC. Brandon, who is in the midst of a period of explorationD. Francis, who has established a coherent sense of identity; she has made identity commitments after a period of exploration

C. Brandon, who is in the midst of a period of exploration

Which of the following individuals would be considered to be in an identity diffusion state?A. Alexandra, who has not made firm commitments and is not currently trying to make themB. Denise, who has made identity commitments without needing a period of explorationC. Brandon, who is in the midst of a period of explorationD. Francis, who has established a coherent sense of identity; she has made identity commitments after a period of exploration

A. Alexandra, who has not made firm commitments and is not currently trying to make them

A sense of identity is typically crystallized:A. in early adolescence.B. throughout the adolescent period.C. in late adolescence.D. in late adolescence to the early 20s.

D. in late adolescence to the early 20s.

. Recent identity research has debunked which of the following myths about identity development in adolescence?A. There is an identity crisis that is resolved during adolescence.B. There is a clear, systematic order in which all individuals must pass through the stages of identity development.C. Identity achievement is the final state of identity development for all individuals.D. All of these ideas about identity development in adolescence are myths that have been debunked in research studies.

D. All of these ideas about identity development in adolescence are myths that have been debunked in research studies

. Ethnic identity may be sped up if parents teach their children:A. to ignore society's conflicting messages about race.B. to respect their elders.C. to attend church regularly.D. about dealing with racism.

D. about dealing with racism.

Robert Sellers and colleagues have presented a model to help make sense of the complicated relations among perceiveddiscrimination, ethnic identity, and mental health among minorities. This model is called:A. the racial centrality model of identity (RCMI).B. the multicultural model of discrimination (MMOD).C. the multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI).D. the multitrait multimethod model of discrimination (MMMD)

C. the multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI).

Among ethnic minority youth, academic achievement is highest when adolescents experience all of the following except:A. feel connected to their ethnic group.B. are aware of racism.C. believe it is important to the people in their life to be academically successful within mainstream society.D. are not aware of racism.

D. are not aware of racism.

Compared to minority adolescents with families that have been in the United States for a long-time, foreign-born ethnicminority adolescents tend to perform:A. better in school, but are more likely to be involved in delinquent behavior.B. worse in school, but are less likely to have emotional and behavioral problems.C. better in school, and are less likely to be involved in delinquent behavior.D. worse in school, and are more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems.

C. better in school, and are less likely to be involved in delinquent behavior

According to the textbook, feeling discriminated against is predictive of all of the following except:A. conduct problems.B. depression.C. lower achievement in school.D. All of the above.

D. All of the above.

According to the textbook, having race as a central part of one's identity has the following impact(s) on adolescentdevelopment:A. it may make adolescents more sensitive to discrimination.B. it may help adolescents cope better with discrimination.C. A and B are both true.D. Neither A nor B is true.

C. A and B are both true.

According to the textbook, Black individuals who believe that the public has low regard for their ethnic group typically:A. are more sensitive to racial cues.B. are less sensitive to racial cues.C. have low private regard.D. have high private regard

A. are more sensitive to racial cues.

Positive mental health is associated with:A. having strong positive feelings about one's own ethnic heritage and feeling separate from the mainstream culture.B. separating from one's own ethnic heritage but having strong positive feelings about mainstream culture.C. having strong positive feelings about one's own ethnic heritage and about mainstream culture.D. separating from both one's own ethnic heritage and mainstream culture

C. having strong positive feelings about one's own ethnic heritage and about mainstream culture.

The idea that pressure to behave in sex-appropriate ways temporary increases during middle adolescence, especially for girls,is called the _______ hypothesis.A. gender intensificationB. self-image stabilityC. sex-role stereotypingD. androgyny

A. gender intensification

Which of the following statements is not true regarding the gender intensification hypothesis in adolescence?A. During adolescence, girls can be highly pressured to behave in feminine ways without necessarily being punished orlabeled deviant for exhibiting some masculine traits at the same time.B. During adolescence, boys can be highly pressured to behave in masculine ways without necessarily being punished orlabeled deviant for exhibiting some feminine traits at the same time.C. Boys' gender-role socialization does not intensify during adolescence as much as it does for girls because boys' gender-rolesocialization is very intense from childhood.D. Girls may feel increasingly pressured to dress nicely and to wear makeup when they reach adolescence, but they are notpressured to give up athletics.

C. Boys' gender-role socialization does not intensify during adolescence as much as it does for girls because boys' gender-rolesocialization is very intense from childhood.