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20 Cards in this Set

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At the heart of social-cognitive theory is...


A) reinforcement


B) the unconscious "unmasked"


C) observational learning


D) all of the above

observational learning

Most individuals believe that a person's behavior is more consistent than it actually is. Mischel called this______.


A) the constancy dilemma


B) the consistency paradox


C) Freud's Rubric's Cube


D) a Gordian Knot

the consistency pradox

Mischel believes that a high degree of behavioral consistency_______.


A) may be maladaptive


B) characterizes only highly intelligent people


C) is the best index of mental health


D) suggests that traits do not exist



May be maladaptive

Mischel's major criticism of traditional personality theories is that they emphasize the _____ and de-emphasize _____.


A) reinforcement; punishment


B) situation variables; person variables


C) incentive; reinforcement


D) person variables; situation variables

person variables; situation variables

According to Mischel, which of the following theorists overemphasized situation variables?


A) Allport


B) Freud


C) Skinner


D) Cattell

Skinner

A person's belief concerning what he or she is capable of doing in a give situation describes his or her_____.


A) perceived self-efficacy


B) subjective self-efficacy


C) personal competence


D) all of the above

perceived self-effiacy

In social cognitive theory, a model is best defined as____.


A) anyone similar to the observer


B) a human being


C) someone who can do something that the observer cannot do


D) anything that conveys information

anything that conveys information

In Bandura's 1965 study utilizing a BoBo doll, it was found that children who saw a model being reinforced for aggression later displayed aggression themselves when they were given an incentive to do so. This experiment exemplified the influence of ______.


A) direct reinforcement


B) direct punishment


C) vicarious reinforcement


D) vicarious punishment

vicarious reinforcement

Which processes make delayed modeling possible?


A) motivational processes


B) motor reproduction processes


C) attentional processes


D) retentional processes

retentional processes

Which processes include the concept of reinforcement?


A) motivational processes


B) motor reproduction processes


C) attentional processes


D) retentional processes

motivational processes

Which of the following exemplifies a dysfunctional self-expectancy?


A) Thinking that one can do more than one can actually do.


B) Thinking that one cannot do something that one is actually capable of doing.


C) Both a and B


D) neither A nor B

BOTH A and B

_____allow a person to act contrary to his or her moral principles without experiencing self-contempt.


A) Dysfunctional self-expectancies


B) healthy performance standards


C) self-exonerating mechanisms


D) encoding stretegies

Self-exonerating mechanisms

Which self-exonerating mechanism does the statement "I committed the crime so that I could provide necessities for my family" exemplify?


A) moral justification


B) euphemistic labeling


C) attribution of blame


D) advantageous comparison

Moral justification

Which of Mischel's preschool research participants were most socially and academically adjusted as adolescents?


A) Those that could delay gratification even when rewards were visible


B) Those with the least ability to delay gratification


C) Those best able to follow instructions


D) Those that were given distraction strategies by the researchers

Those that could delay gratification even when rewards were visible

When individuals who opt for the immediate gratification are shown models who delay gratification, the individuals who originally opted for immediate gratification will______.


A) Experience an approach-avoidance conflict


B) Continue to opt for immediate gratification


C) Vacillate between immediate and delayed gratification


D) Delay gratification

delay gratification

Bandura is a _______.


A) soft determinist


B) hard determinist


C) free willist


D) radical behaviorist

soft determinist

Bandura defines freedom as _______.


A) autonomy


B) the number of options available to an individual


C) that which distinguishes humans from other animals


D) fortuitous experiences



The number of options available to an individual

According to Bandura, which of the following is true concerning chance encounters?


A) They are usually detrimental to social cognitive learning


B) They rarely have an impact on one's life


C) They are usually planned by other people


D) They exemplify was that the environment can influence behavior and the person

They exemplify that the environment can influence behavior and the person

A theorist who believes that both person and situation variable influence what a person does at any moment is an______.


A) environmentalist


B) personologist


C) interactionist


D) trait theorist



interactionist

Social cognitive theory has been criticized for_____.


A) invoking mental events to explain behavior


B) neglecting important contributions of psychoanalytic theory


C) ignoring important aspect of personality


D) ALL OF THE ABOVE

-invoking mental events to explain behavior


-neglecting important contributions of psychoanalytic theory


-ignoring important aspect of personality


ALL OF THE ABOVE