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179 Cards in this Set

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The study of age related changes in behavior and mental processes throughout the lifespan is called

developmental psychology

The ? method of developmental data collection follows one person over time, and provides information about ?

longitudinal; age changes

Differences in age groups that reflect factors unique to a specific age group, rather than being due to developmental changes, are called ? effects

cohort

Teratogens are ? than can cause birth defects

environmental agents

This is the first stage of prenatal development, characterized by rapid cell division

Germinal period

The fetal period lasts from?

8 weeks to birth

The first motor movements a newborn exhibits are limited to ?

reflexes

Synaptic pruning refers to the ? that helps strengthen connection b/w neurons

natural reduction of unused synapses

What sensory systems is most poorly developed at birth?

vision

This refers to biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult sized body and sexual maturity

puberty

? is the psychological development that occurs during the period b/w childhood and adulthood

Adolescence

? is the onset of menstruation in females; ? is the first ejaculation in males

Menarche; sperarche

Pubic hair, breasts, facial hair, and deepening of the voice are called?

secondary sex characteristics

? aging results from disease, disuse, or neglect

secondary

Primary aging?

refers to gradual and inevitable changes in physical and mental lprocesses

? was one of the first scientists to prove that a child's cognitive processes are fundamentally different from an adult's

Piaget

Cognitive structure that consist of a number of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experience are called ?

schemas

Assimilation occurs when new information is ?

absorbed into existing schemas

The four stages of Piaget's cognitive development model are ?

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

Once a child can perform mental operations on concrete objects, and understand the principles of conservation and reversibility, she has reached Piaget's ? stage

concrete operational

? is the ability to understand that certain physical characteristics remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes

Conservation

The ability to think abstractly or hypothetically occurs in Piaget's ? stage

formal operational

? is a strong affectionate bond with special others that endures over time

Attachment

? is an innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attachment to the first, large moving object seen

imprinting

The ability to empathize with others and distinguish b/w right and wrong is called ?

morality

Kohlbergbelieved his stages of moral development to be ?

univeral and invariant

Once an individual has accepted and internalized the rules and values of societ, that person has advanced to the ? level of moral development

conventional

An infant's inborn disposition is known as

temperament

Thomas and Chess's concept of ? says that parents should work with not try to change, their child's temperament

goodness- of-fit

In Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, the establishment of a sense of self and a role in society is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following changes

identity vs. role confusion

According to ERikson's theory, the dominamt crisis of adolescence concerns ?

establishing an identity

Erikson's identity crisis refers to ?

the inner conflict related to serious soul-searching

Resolution of the critical conflict of young adulthood will, according to Erikson, lead to a sense of ?

Intimacy

One of the clearest identifiers of abuse potential is

impulsivity

The major detrimental difference b/w individualistic and collectivist cultures is

which needs and goals are emphasized

? has consistently been found to be a key factor in successful marriages

Realistic expectations

What is the most common reason for girls dropping out of high school

pregnancy

A child who can adapt effectively in the face of threats is demonstrating

resiliency

The ? theory of aging suggests that successful adjustment is fostered by a full and active commitment to life

activity

The ? theory of aging suggests that adjustment to retirement is fostered by mutual withdrawal b/w the elderly and society

disengagement

Deliberately choosing to reduce the number of social cntacts in favor of familiar people who provide meaningful interactions is an example of ? theory of aging

socioemotional selectivity

The greatest challenge for the elderly in the US is

ageism

Research on aging in the US indicates that elderly men generally have more ? than elderly women

income


Research on aging in the US indicates that elderly women have more ? than elderly men

friends

Grieving peopl generally begin with the ? stage, and end with the ? stage

numbness; resolution

What concept is considered inevitable, permanent, universal and nonfunctional

death

what is the correct sequence of Kubler-Ross's stage theory of dying

denial/anger/bargaining/depression/acceptance

The study of death and dying is known as

thanatology

? refers to one's biological state of being male or female

Sex

refers to the psychologican and socioculutral meanings added to the biological state of being male or female

Gender

Pat has an XY chromosome pattern and likes to play with trucks. The XY pattern is characteristic of Pat's ? and playing with trucks is characteristic of his ?

sex; gender

Your ? is related to societal expectations for "normal and appropriate" behavior for your biological sex

gender role

Individuals who have the genitals and secondary sex characteristics of one sex, but feel as if they belong to other sex are known as ?

transsexuals

If a person is erotically attracted to members of their same sex, that individual is called?

gay or lesbian

Your primary erotic attraction toward others isreferred to as your?

sexual orientation

An individual who engages in both herosexual and homosexual relations is referred to as ?

bisexual

A combination of both "male" and "female" personality traits is called ?

androgyny

Who were three major contributors to today's knowledge about sexuality

Ellis; Kinsey; Masters and johnson

Havelock Ellis used ? to study human sexuality

himself

Viewing one's own ethnic group as central and "correct" while judging the rest of the world according to this standard is known as ?

ethnocentrism

Which of the following has been formally opposed by the United Nations and the World Health Organization

Female genital mutilation

The discharge of seman and seminal fluid from the penis during orgasm is called ?

ejaculation

The body returns to its unaroused state in the ? phase of sexual arousal

Resolution

The period following oragsm, during which it is considered physiologically impossible for most men to be further excited to orgasm, is called the ? period

refractory

Most Sexually Transmitted Infections:

are readily cured in the early stages

Your textbook defines a sexual dysfunction as

an impairment of the normal physiological processes of arousal and orgasm

The current position of theAmerican Psychiatric Association and the American Psycological Association is that homosexuality

is not a mental illness

For both men and women, the inabilith to respond to sexual stimulation to the point of orgasm is defined in the text as

orgasmic dysfunction

The fear of being judged in connection with sexual behavior is called

performance anxiety

With regard to sexuality ? is the set of beliefs, values, and norms that subtly encourage male sexuality and discourage female sexuality

the double standard

? are socially dictated descriptions of acceptable sexual behavior

Sexual scripts

Women can't be raped against their will; and secretly want to be raped/ A man cannot be raped by a woman./ Men have little control over their biologically overpowering sex drive are ?

All all myths about rape

Motivation is best defined as

the set of factors that activate, direct and maintain behavior toward a goal

Emotion is best defined as

a subjective feeling that includes arousal, cognitions, and behavioral expressions

A behavior pattern that is unlearned, and found in almost all members of a species is called

an instinct

In the ? of motivation a lack or a deficiency of something creates a state of tension which motivates us to reduce the deficiency

drive-reduction theory

? is the body's tendency to maintain a relatively stable state for internal processes

Homeostasis

? theory suggests that organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an ideal or optimal level of stimulation that maximizes their performance

Optimal arousal

Sensation seeking is related to ?

the arousal motive

? theories emphasize the importance of attributions and expectancies in motivating behaviors

Cognitive

The theory that some motives have to be satisfied before a person can advance to fulfilling higher motives is based on

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Hunger, arousal, and achievement are three basic

motives

? is a feeling of fullness that has an effect on the perception of hunger.

Satiety

The heat generated in response to food ingestion is called ?

thermogenesis

The brain's "eating center" is found ?

throughout the brain

? involves extreme weight loss due to an obsessive fear of obesity and self-imposed starvation

Anorexia nervosa

? involves consuming large quantities of food followed by self-induce vomiting, the use of laxatives, or extreme exercise.

Bulimia nervosa

Research has shown that men in a state of fear may be more attracted to women than men in a relaxed state. THis is primarily due to:

misattribution of arousal

In a ? the cheek muscles are pulled back, and the muscles around the eyes also contract.

Duchenne smile

This theory says that emotions are physiologically similar and are due to simultaneous arousal, cognitive, and behavioral expressions.

Cannon-Bard

The belief that movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions is the

facial feedback hypothesis

According to ? bodily arousal must be labeled or interpreted for an emotional experience to occur

Schachter's two-factor theory

Complex emotions like jealousy, embarrassment, or love are best explained by

Schacter's two-factor theory

Intrinsic motivation comes from

personal employment

Extrinsic motivation is sbased on

the desire for rewards or threats of punishment

Knowing and managing one's emotions, empathizing with other's and maintaining satisfying relationships are the key factors in ?

emotional intnelligence

An individual's relatively stable and enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions is known as his or her

personality

A relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone is known as

trait

A statistical procedure used to determine the most basic units contained in a large array of data

factor analysis

Compared to ? theories that describe personality, ? theories attempt to explain personality

trait; psychoanalytic

According to Freud, the thought and info that you are currently aware of, or remembering, is called your ?

conscious

The thoughts and motives that lie beyond a person's normal awaareness are found in what Freud calls the ?

unconscious

A husband says, "this is my mother...I mean my wife , Sylvia." is an example of a ?

Freudian slip

according to Freud the three mental structures that form personality are the ?

id, ego, and superego

The ? principle asserts that the ego tries to meet the demands of the id, superego and the realities of the environment

reality

Defense mechanisms are strategies employed by the ? to reduce anxiety and avoid conflict

ego

The first and most basic defense mechanism, which block unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness is called ?

regression

The five developmental periods during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified for personality development to proceed normally are known as

Freud's psychosexual stages of development

Three of the most influential neo-freudians were ?

Adler, Jung, and Horney

According to Adler, feelings of helplessness and imcompetence during childhood results in ?

an inferiority complex

according to Jung, the primitive images and patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious are called

archetypes

according to horney, adults who were neglected or isolated in a hostile environment as children experience helplessness and insecurity as adults which she called

basic anxiety

one of psychology's most spirited debates is currently about

self esteem

unconditional positive regard is a rogerian term for

positive behavior toward a person without attaching any contingencies

the innate tendency toward growth that motivates all human behavior and results in the full realization of a person's highest potential is called

self actualization

according to bandura ? involves a person's belief about whether he or she can successfully engage in behaviors related to personal goals

self efficacy

according to ? thoughts behavior and the environment all interact to produce personality

reciprocal determinism

The ? approach represents a blending of several theories of personality

biopsychosocial

the most widely used personality test is the MMPI or the ? inventory

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

The use of ambiguous unstructured stimuli to assess personality is called ? tessting

projective

Which of the four d's is the "exception rather than the rule."

danger

the ? assumes that abnormal behavior is due to physical causes that can be be diagnosed, treated and possibly cured

medical model

? is the specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis treatment and prevention of mental disorders

psychiatry

the classification system produced by the american psychiatric association and used to describe abnormal behaviors is called the dsm-iv-tr, dsm is an abberiviation for

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

? is a legal term for people with a mental disorder that implies a lack of responsibility for their behavior and an inability to manage their affairs

insanity

this is a fear or discomfort that arises abruptly and usually involves frear one is dying

panic attack

anxiety disorders are

characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear

chronic, uncontrollable, excessive worrying about nothing in particular is associated with

generalized anxiety disorder

Sudden inexplicable episodes of intense fear with an impending sense of doom are associated with

panic disorder

the two main types of mood disorders are

major depression and bipolar disorder

a major depressive disorder is best characterized by

a long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with functioning, pleasure, and life interests.

this is an excessive and unreasonable state of excitement which may include impulsive behavior

Mania

someone who experiences episodes of mania, or cycles b/w mania and depression, has a ?

bipolar disorder

What is true of suicide

a family history of suicide increases a person's risk for suicide

If you suspect a friend might be considering suicide what should you do?

ask your friend if he is thinking of hurting himself

this is a thought disturbance characterized by mistaken beliefs that are maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary

delusion

the presence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time

co-morbidity

many people who have a mental disoder use ? to self medicate or reduce their symptoms

alcohol

? is related to losing one's sense of reality and feeling estranged from oneself

depesonalization

a condition in which two or more distinct personalities are present, at differnt times, in the same person is called ?

dissociative identity disorder DID

the presence of inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that significantly impair social and occupational functioning is characteristic of

personality disorders

egocentrism, lack of a conscience, disregard for the rights of others, impulsive behavior, lack of remorse/guilt, and charisma are characteristic of someone ?

with an antisocial personality disorder

A preoccupation with one's own concerns, and insensitivity to the perscpective or needs of others, is defined as ? in your text

egocentrism

This disoder is characterized by impulsivity, hyper-sexuality, and instability of mood, relationships, and self-image

Borderline personality disorder

the system of psychotherapy developed by Freud that seeks to bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness is known as

psychoanalysis

in psychoanalysis, free association refers to

reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents

the name of a psychodynamically-based, brief form of therapy identified in your text is

interpersonal therapy

this form of therapy focuses on faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors

cognitive therapy

cognitive therap alters ? the things people say to themselves when they interpret events

self-talk

the process by which the therapist and client work to change destructive ways of thinking is called ?

cognitive restructuring

Ellis' approach to cognitive therapy attempts to eliminate self defeating beliefs through rational examination. He named his approach REBT or ? therapy

rational emotive behavior

Beck practices ? which attempts to change not only destructive thought and beliefs, but the associated behaviors as well

cognitive behavior therapy

? therapy helps clients to adjust their affective or emotional experiences in order to maximize personal growth

Humanistic

an insightful awareness, and ability to share another person's inner experience is called ?

empathy

the nonjudgmental attitude and genuine caring that a therapist expresses toward a client is called

unconditional positive regard

the awareness of one's true inner thoughts and feelings, and the ability to share them authentically with others, is called ? in Rogerian therapy

genuineness

this is listening with total attention by reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying

active listening

? multiple people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals

group therapy

This type of group does not have a professional leader, and members assist each other in coping with a specific problem

self-help

? therapy uses techniques based on learning principles to change maladaptive behavior

behavior

this is a gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear-response by associating a hierarchy of fear evoking stimuli with deep relaxation

systematic desenitization

? creates anxiety by pairing an unpleasant stimulus with a maladaptive behavior in order to decrease by the behavior

aversion therapy

in behavior therapy ? techniques use shaping and reinforcement to increase adaptive behaviors, and punishment and extinction to decrease maladaptive behaviors

operant conditioning

this type of therapy involves watching and imitating appropriate models who demonstrate desirable behaviors

modeling

? modeling combines live modeling with direct and gradual practice

participant

behaviorists reply to criticisms of their treatment approach by saying

behavior therapy increases personal control by making the rewards and punishments that influence behavior obvious

drugs that create feelings of calmness, reduce muscle tension, and lower sympathetic activity in the brain are called

antianxiety drugs

traditional antipsychotics appear to

decrease activity at a dopamine receptors

The study of how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions is called _____.
social psychology
The principles people follow in making judgments about the causes of events, others' behavior, and their own behavior are known as _____.
attribution
A stranger walking in front of you trips. You assume this is because he is clumsy, rather than considering the fact that the sidewalk might be uneven. You have just committed _____.
the fundamental attribution error

When you attempt to maintain a positive self-image by taking credit for your successes and emphasizing external causes for your failures, you are engaged in _____.

the self-serving bias
_____ is a learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group.

prejudice

A set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members is called a _____.

stereotypes

Need _____ is the sharing of similar needs.

compatibility

Need _____ is the tendency to be attracted to people whose qualities we admire but personally lack.
complementarity
A strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship is called _____.
companionate love
This is the change in behavior due to real or imagined group pressure
Conformity
When someone has a need for approval and acceptance by a group, they often conform to the norms set by that group. This is called _____ social influence
normative