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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The limited capacity ofshort-term memory may be due to how neurons in the ____ code and storeinformation.​

a. ​hippocampus b. ​amygdala


c. ​reticular formation d. ​corpus callosum

a. hippocampus

​Carolyn istraining her new puppy Ollie using a method called clicker training. The firststep is to click a clicker and give Ollie a treat. In this case, the originallyneutral stimulus is ____.

a. ​the treat b. ​Carolyn c. ​Ollie d. ​the clicker

d. The Clicker

Top-down perceptualprocessing provides a good example of how ____.

a. ​the capacity of short-term memory is extremely limited b. ​short-term memory and long-term memory often work in a parallel manner c. ​attention is a necessary factor in transferring sensory memories to short-term memory d. ​elaborative rehearsal creates memories that are not readily forgotten

b. ​short-term memory and long-term memory often work in a parallel manner
​An organized,generalized knowledge structure in long-term memory is a(n) ____.

a. ​trace b. ​engram c. ​icon d. ​schema

d. schema

​Pavlov’s original experiment was an example of ____.

a. ​forward conditioning b. ​simultaneous conditioning c. ​backward conditioning d. ​inverted conditioning

a. forward conditioning

Don is delighted when hesuccessfully conditions his roommate, Lloyd, to cringe at the sound of thesqueaky drawer by pairing the squeak with a ping-pong ball to his roommate’shead. He decides to continue his classical conditioning experiment and createsanother squeaky noise by dragging his chair legs across the floor. At first,Lloyd cringes at the new squeak, illustrating ____.

a. ​habituation b. ​dishabituation c. ​discrimination d. ​generalization

a. habituation

Your understanding ofwhat happens when you go to the dentist’s office is an example of a ____. a. ​stereotype b. ​person schema c. ​script d. ​preposition

c. script

​Joseph tells hisbuddies at work a joke that makes fun of women. To his surprise, his friendsscolded him. As a result, Joseph decides never again to tell a joke like thatat work. Joseph’s experience is an example of what type of consequence?

a. ​positive reinforcement b. ​negative reinforcement c. ​negative punishment d. ​positive punishment

d. positive punishment

Two types of retrievalprocesses are ____.

a. ​search and compare b. ​recall and recognition c. ​analyze and categorize d. ​comprehend and describe

b. recall and recognition

​Which term refersto refers to the degree to which the NS/CS and US occur close together in time?

a. ​consequence b. ​conflation c. ​contingency d. ​contiguity

d. contiguity

​Suppose that youare having a difficult time learning German because your previous exposure toFrench is getting in the way. What are you experiencing?

a. ​cue-dependent forgetting b. ​proactive interference c. ​decay d. ​retroactive interference

b. proactive interference

Recall is to ____ asrecognition is to ____.

a. ​long-term memory; short-term memory b. ​multiple-choice question; essay question c. ​short-term memory; long-term memory d. ​essay question; multiple-choice question

d. essay question; multiple-choice question

A principle that seemsto underlie the three stages model of memory is that ____.

a. ​forgetting is more influenced by biological factors than anything else b. ​the more you process something that you want to remember, the more likely it will end up in long-term memory storage c. ​memories need to spend a large amount of time in each stage before they can be remembered long-term d. ​consciousness of things we remember is not necessary until the long-term memory stage

b. ​the more you process something that you want to remember, the more likely it will end up in long-term memory storage
​Sam recentlylost his grandmother. Now Sam feels sad whenever he smells the perfume hisbeloved grandmother used to wear. In this example, Sam’s sadness is the ____.

a. ​US b. ​CS c. ​UR d. ​NS

b. CS

Sam recently lost hisgrandmother. Now Sam feels sad whenever he smells the perfume his belovedgrandmother used to wear. In this example, the loss of his grandmother is the____. a. ​US b. ​CS c. ​UR d. ​CR

a. US

B.F. Skinner’s name forthe law of effect is ____.

a. ​latent learning b. ​respondent learning c. ​operant conditioning d. ​observational conditioning

c. operant conditioning

​All examples of classical conditioning begin with a pre-existing relationship between the ____.

a. ​unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus b. ​conditioned stimulus and the neutral stimulus c. ​unconditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response d. ​conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response

c. ​unconditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response
After “Little Albert”was conditioned to fear a white rat, he began to fear several other furrythings. This is an example of ____.

a. ​spontaneous recovery b. ​stimulus generalization c. ​stimulus discrimination d. ​latent learning

b. ​stimulus generalization
When a parent is talkingon a telephone and suddenly turns toward the baby crying in the other room,____ has occurred.

a. ​sensory reduction b. ​habituation c. ​the orienting reflex d. ​classical conditioning

c. ​the orienting reflex
​According to theprinciples of operant conditioning, when reinforcement for a behavior isstopped, ____.

a. ​the person will find another source of reinforcement b. ​the behavior will also stop eventually c. ​someone else will begin to reinforce the behavior d. ​someone else will begin to punish the behavior

b. ​the behavior will also stop eventually
When studying recall ofvisual information, the serial position curves for younger and older subjectswould most likely be ____.

a. ​different for items placed in memory first b. ​different for items placed in memory last c. ​different for items placed in memory both first and last d. ​very similar

d. very similar

Aversion therapy totreat alcoholism is ____.

a. ​one of the most successful techniques developed for this problem b. ​only modestly successful c. ​successful only if the drinker has been drinking for many years d. ​not successful at all

b. ​only modestly successful
​If you havedeveloped an extreme negative reaction to chicken because it was associatedwith a case of the flu in your childhood, you have a ____.

a. ​observationally conditioned taste sensation b. ​classically conditioned taste aversion c. ​operantly conditioned taste response d. ​operantly conditioned nausea aversion

b. ​classically conditioned taste aversion
When you storeinformation in your long-term memory according to its meaning, your brain isusing ____ encoding.

a. ​semantic b. ​acoustic c. ​visual d. ​lexical

a. semantic

​Classical conditioningis to ____ as operant conditioning is to ____.

a. ​association of stimuli; consequences of behavior b. ​reinforcement of responses; observation of models c. ​punishment; reinforcement d. ​shaping the environment; shaping the individual

a. ​association of stimuli; consequences of behavior
Robyn’s father tells herif she does not practice the violin for 30 minutes every evening, she will notget computer time that evening. Robyn’s father is using ____.

a. ​timeout b. ​restitution c. ​fines d. ​loss of privileges

d. loss of privileges

​If you usemaintenance rehearsal to prepare for your next test in psychology, you willlikely ____.

a. ​do well if the test is next week, but not well if the test is sometime after that b. ​not do well c. do quite well d. ​not do well on the questions that are based on facts and information, but do well on the questions based on concepts

b. do not do well

Although hungernaturally occurs in response to an empty stomach, we can easily becomeconditioned to feel hunger at certain times of the day due to classicalconditioning. In this case, the US would be the ____.

a. ​time of day b. ​eating c. ​food d. ​empty stomach

d. empty stomach

Maintenance rehearsaldescribes the ____.

a. ​attempt to remember something by repeating it over and over b. ​process of keeping something in memory by changing its form or structure c. ​attempt to keep memory skills strong by engaging in simple memory tests d. ​process of creating a mental image of something in order to remember it

a. ​attempt to remember something by repeating it over and over
Aversion therapy thatuses Antabuse to treat alcoholism is based on the principle of ____.

a. ​classical conditioning b. ​operant conditioning c. ​social learning d. ​observational conditioning

a. classical conditioning

Lloyd’s roommate, Don,classically conditioned Lloyd to cringe whenever Don opened a squeaky drawer bypairing a squeak with a ping pong ball to Lloyd’s head. Lloyd wants to returnthe favor, so when Don is out, Lloyd discretely wires an electrode to thedrawer handle to Don will be shocked when he touches it. Lloyd is using ____.

a. ​negative reinforcement b. ​positive reinforcement c. ​negative punishment d. ​positive punishment

d. positive punishment

Your knowledge ofpsychology is an example of ____.

a. ​procedural memory b. ​semantic memory c. ​episodic memory d. ​implicit memory

b. semantic memory

The fact that to beeffective, punishment must be aversive and reinforcement must not be trivial,suggests that ____.

a. ​the best type of consequences are the most extreme ones b. ​punishment is a more effective means of changing behavior c. ​you should know the perceptions of the person whose behavior you are trying to change d. ​the same consequences will lead to the same effects in all people

c. ​you should know the perceptions of the person whose behavior you are trying to change
You attend a lecture inwhich a politician lists the 20 points of her platform in a relatively shortperiod of time. After leaving the lecture, you are least likely to recall thepoints from the ____.

a. ​beginning of the list b. ​end of the list c. ​middle of the list d. ​ones with which you have had personal experience

c. middle of the list

When reinforcement for abehavior is withheld, an extinction burst is common. This extinction burst isa(n) ____.

a. ​rapid decrease in the behavior b. ​emotional reaction indicating that the organism is not happy with the situation c. ​period of time in which the behavior is not exhibited at all followed by a recurrence d. ​temporary increase in the behavior

d. ​temporary increase in the behavior
]Your understanding ofwhat happens when you go to the dentist’s office is an example of a ____. a. ​stereotype b. ​person schema c. ​script d. ​preposition

c. script

Jenny has recentlymarried and taken her husband’s last name. To her dismay, her friends from highschool keep calling her by her maiden name despite her repeated requests to useher married name. Jenny’s friends appear to be experiencing ____.

a. ​proactive interference b. ​retroactive interference c. ​repression d. ​memory decay

a. ​proactive interference
Benton is filling out anapplication for a mortgage. On the application, Benton is asked to give hisformer address. To Benton’s surprise, he cannot recall his last address. Theonly address that comes to mind is his current one. Benton appears to be experiencing____. a. ​proactive interference b. ​retroactive interference c. ​repression d. ​memory decay

b. retroactive interference

Possibly because ofdamage to his ____, Kim Peek had difficulty learning new motor skills.

a. ​occipital lobe b. ​hippocampus c. ​amygdala d. ​cerebellum

d. cerebellum

Elaborative rehearsalinvolves trying to store something in long-term memory by ____.

a. ​repeating it over and over again, whether you are paying attention or not b. ​associating it with something you already have stored in long-term memory c. ​listening to subliminal learning tapes during non-REM sleep d. ​taking memory enhancing pills like B vitamins or ginkgo

b. ​associating it with something you already have stored in long-term memory
​You have the phonenumber of the local pizza parlor in your iconic memory right now. What do youhave to do with this information to move it to short-term memory?

a. ​Repeat it over and over. b. ​Pay attention to it. c. ​Associate it with something you already know. d. ​Write it down on a piece of paper.

b. ​Pay attention to it.
The working memory modelis to ____ processing as the three-stage model is to ____ processing.

a. ​elaborative; maintenance b. ​maintenance; elaborative c. ​serial; parallel d. ​parallel; serial

d. parallel; serial

Freddie used to feed hercat canned cat food. Now every time Freddie uses the can opener, her cat getsvery excited and starts meowing. In this example, the UR is ____.

a. ​cat food b. ​the cat’s excitement c. ​the sound of the can opener d. ​the cat agent

b. ​the cat’s excitement
The duration andcapacity of short-term memory are best described as ____.

a. ​large in capacity and long in duration b. ​small in capacity and short in duration c. ​small in capacity and long in duration d. ​large in capacity and short in duration

b. ​small in capacity and short in duration
Extinction in operantconditioning occurs when the ____.

a. ​neutral stimulus does not get reinforced b. ​conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus c. ​behavior is no longer reinforced d. ​individual consciously chooses not to engage in the behavior

c. ​behavior is no longer reinforced
Tina has inadvertentlytrained her dog Bobo, to lay his chin on her leg when she is studying by givinghim a treat when he does. Unfortunately, she has been so busy that she has runout of treats. Bobo not only continues to walk over and lay his chin on herleg, but he begins pawing at her leg and arm. Bobo is showing ____.

a. ​generalization b. ​discrimination c. ​an extinction burst d. ​spontaneous recovery

c. an extinction burst

Based on ElizabethLoftus’s research on eyewitness memory, even if eyewitnesses are paid money foraccurate eyewitness accounts, ____.

a. ​they would remain unmotivated to create accurate memories b. ​their accuracy would not change c. ​they would continue to be inaccurate for very dramatic events while becoming more accurate for less dramatic events d. ​females would continue to have more accurate memories than males table>I��@�JT

b. ​their accuracy would not change
Don is delighted when hesuccessfully conditions his roommate, Lloyd, to cringe at the sound of thesqueaky drawer by pairing the squeak with a ping-pong ball to his roommate’shead. He decides continue his experiment with classical conditioning andcreates another squeaky noise by dragging his chair legs across the floor. Atfirst Lloyd cringes at the new squeak, but with continued “trials” in which thedrawer squeak is paired with a ping-pong ball to the head but the chair legsqueak is not, Lloyd stops cringing to the chair leg squeak, illustrating ____. a. ​habituation b. ​dishabituation c. ​discrimination d. ​generalization

a. habituation

Cue-dependent forgettingis memory retrieval failure that is part of the ____.

a. ​encoding specificity principle b. ​memory synchrony principle c. ​memory aggregation principle d. ​probe specificity principle

a. encoding specificity principle

When you momentarilyforget a friend’s name, the function of memory that has failed is the ____function.

a. ​reproduction b. ​retrieval c. ​encoding d. ​storage

b. retrieval