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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what organs does the renal system consist of ?

-2 kidneys


-2 ureters


- urinary bladder


-urethra

label the structures 1-14

label the structures 1-14

1. diaphragm


2.oesophagus


3. L adrenal gland


4. abdominal aorta


5. IVC


6. Rectum


7. ovary


8. uterus


9. urethra


10. urinary bladder


11. ureter


12- renal artery


13. renal vein


14. R kidney

where are the kidneys located in relation to the peritoneum

-in the retroperitoneal space

which border faces the vertebral column

the concave medial border

which level vertebra is the upper and lower poles of the liver located

T12 and L3

T12 and L3

which ribs protect the kidneys

11 and 12

which kidney is higher than the other

left


(light so it rises like air )


label structures  1-4

label structures 1-4

1. renal artery


2. renal vein


3. ureter


4. hilus

what are the layers which surround the idneys from deepest to most superficial

- renal capsule


-adipose capsule


-renal fascia

what is the function of the layers of the kidney

-maintains kidney shape


- trauma barrier

what is the deep layer of the kindey continuous with

outer layer of the ureter

what type of tissue is the renal capsule made from ?

dense irregular connective tissue

what type of tissue does the middle layer of the kidney consist of?

adipose tissue


adipose capsule

what tissue does the superficial layer of the kidneys consist of ?

dense irregular CT 
(renal fascia)

dense irregular CT


(renal fascia)

which layaer anchors kidney to abdominal wall and surrounding structures

renal fascia

which layer maintains position of the kidneys

adipose capsule

which layer maintains shape of kidneys

renal capsule

which layers act as trauma barriers of the kidneys

adipose and renal capsule

label the following structures on
( lying on stomach)

label the following structures on


( lying on stomach)

1. body of L2


2. psoas muscle


3. LK


4. ureter


5. Abd. Aorta


6. IvC


7. retroperitoneal space


8. adipose capsule


9.renal fascia


10. renal capsuke

What is nephroptosis



Ptosis (falling)

-a condition also known as floating kidney where a kidney descends more than 2 vertebral bodies (5cm) during positional change e.g supine to standing

Who is predisposed to nephroptosis and why ?

women-
- kidneys enlarged during menstrual cycle  making them heavier and so likely to drop 
- intra-abdominal  pressure birth giving. (partuition)
-abdominal wall is weakened during pregnacny
-corsets, tight skirts, belts 
women to men ratios is ...

women-


- kidneys enlarged during menstrual cycle making them heavier and so likely to drop


- intra-abdominal pressure birth giving. (partuition)


-abdominal wall is weakened during pregnacny


-corsets, tight skirts, belts


women to men ratios is 10:1



Skinny people/ extreme weight loss- decreased muscle tone to abdominal wall.


-fatty renal capsule keeps position of kidneya

What serious consequences might arise from nephroptosis?

Pyelonephritis


Renal calculi


Hematuria


Hypertension


Renal ischemia


Flank pain

what are the two regions inside the kidneys ?
Which is outter 
which is inner ?

what are the two regions inside the kidneys ?


Which is outter


which is inner ?

Renal cortex- outer/superficial (smooth texture
-Renal Medulla (inner, striated)

Renal cortex- outer/superficial (smooth texture


-Renal Medulla (inner, striated)

what do , the renal cortex and renal medulla form together ?

-renal parenchyma. (functional unit of the kidney)
-(renal pelvis also a functional unit)

-renal parenchyma. (functional unit of the kidney)


-(renal pelvis also a functional unit)

label diagrams

label diagrams

1. renal cortex


2. renal medulla


3. renal column


4. renal pyramid


5. renal sinus


6. renal papillae


7. fat


8- renal capsule

what does a renal lobe consist of ?

what does a renal lobe consist of ?

-1 renal pyramid


-overlaying area of renal cortex


-½ of each adjacent renal column

how much cardiac output do the kidneys receive and via what ?

20-25% via left and right renal arteries

divisions of renal blood vessels



RSIAIAGE

-Renal artery  --> segmental arteries in the hilus and sinus
-Segmental arteries  --> interlobar (arteries between renal lobes)
-Interlobar arteries  --> arcuate arteries (arching over top of renal pyramids)
-Arcuate arteries  --> interlobular art...

-Renal artery --> segmental arteries in the hilus and sinus


-Segmental arteries --> interlobar (arteries between renal lobes)


-Interlobar arteries --> arcuate arteries (arching over top of renal pyramids)


-Arcuate arteries --> interlobular arteries ( in the renal cortex)


-Interlobular arteries --> afferent arterioles (in the renal cortex )


Afferent arterioles --> glomerular capillaries (forming part of nephron)


-Glomerular capillaries efferent arterioles


-efferent arterioles -> peritubular capillaries

what can efferent arterioles be thought of as ?

portal vessels


what are portal vessels

Portal vessels carry blood from one capillary bed to another.

what are glomerular capillaries a part of

nephron

where are interlobular arteries

in the renal cortex

where are segmental arteries ?

in the hilus and sinus of the kidney

what's the name given to the second type of capillary given off by the efferent arterioles that surround the part of the nephron which extends into the medulla ?

vasa recta (capillaries near loop of henle)

where are interlobar arteries located

between renal lobes

between renal lobes

renal venous drainage

-Peritubular capillaries  -> peritubular venules Peritubular venules ->  interlobular veins (in the renal cortex)


-Interlobular veins -> arcuate veins (arching over the top of renal pyramids)


Arcuate veins ->  interlobar veins (runnin...

-Peritubular capillaries -> peritubular venules Peritubular venules -> interlobular veins (in the renal cortex)


-Interlobular veins -> arcuate veins (arching over the top of renal pyramids)


Arcuate veins -> interlobar veins (running between renal lobes)


Interlobar veins -> Segmental veins (in hilus and sinus)


Segmental veins Renal vein (to inferior vena cava)

where do the vasa recta drain ?

in the interlobular and arcuate veins

label diagram

label diagram

1. interlobular arteries


2. arcuate arteries


3. interlobar arteries


4.segmental arteries


5. renal arteries


6. renal vein


7. segmental vein


8. interlobar vein


9. arcuate vein


10. interlobular vein

what are the 2 main parts which nephrons concist of ?

1. renal corpuscle


2. renal tubule

1. renal corpuscle


2. renal tubule

2 main parts of the renal corpsucle

1. the glomerulus


2. the Bowman’s capsule

what's the glomerulus and what supplies it ?

ball of capillaries supplied by afferent arterioles

where in the kidneys is urine specifically produced

glomerulus

what drains the glomerulus

efferent arterioles 

efferent arterioles

1. efferent arterioles


2. glomerulus


3. bowmans capsule


2&3: renal corpsicle

what marks the end of the blind end of the nephron

bowmans capsule

which layer is the B's is continuos with renal tubule outer layer

outer parietal layer

where do filtrates collect in the B's C

the capsular space

what cells is the inner layer of B's composed of

podocytes

whats the function of podocytes

envelop glomerular capilarries

1. inner layer


2. capsular space


3. outer parietal layer

1. podocytes


2. pedicel- they interdigitate


3. glomerular capillary

1. Pedicel


2.Slit membrane


3. Basal lamina


4. Endothelial cell


5. Fenestration of endothelial cell


6.Filtration slit

what are the tubular segments of the renal tubule

1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule


2. The Loop of Henle


3. Distal Tubule


4. Collecting Duct

where does the nephron drain into ?

renal sinus

1.PCT


2.


3. Distal convoluted


4 collecting duct


5. loop of henle

what are the 2 tyes of nephrons

- cortical nephrons


- juxtamedullary

where do cortical (85%) nephrons lie

in the outer 2/3 of the cortex

which nephrons have a short loop of henle

corticle nephrons

where do the juxtamedullary nephrons lie



(juxta- next to)

in the inner 1/3 of the cortex

where do the loops of henle of JMN pass ?

deep in the medulla

which part of the proximal tube is convoluted

pars convoluta (early part)

pars convoluta (early part)

which part of the proximal tube is straight

pars recta

what epithelium lines the proximal tube ?

Cuboidal/columnar epithelium

how long is the PCT

15 mm

describe the cells in the pars convoluta

-busier 


-more microvilli


- more mitochondria 


- more invaginations

-busier


-more microvilli


- more mitochondria


- more invaginations

-

-

1. basal lamina


2. microvilli


3. nucleus


4. mitochondrion


5. tight junction (Zona occludens)


6. large intercellular space

describe the cells in the pars recta

-less busy 


-less mitochondria 


 

-less busy


-less mitochondria


what cells make up the thick segments of the loop of henle

what cells make up the thick segments of the loop of henle

simple cuboidal ep

which segment of the loop has high metabolic activity and lots of mitochondria ?

thick ascending limb filer ions and things that we need so they do more work

what cells line the thin segments

simple squamous

where does the final part of the ascending loop of henle return to ?

Efferent or afferent arterioles of the same nephron

which segments of the loop have ow metabolic activty?

thin segments ( highly permeable to water)

macula densa

(thick ascending limb columnar cells)

juxtaglomerular cells

 (afferent arteriole smooth muscle cells) 

(afferent arteriole smooth muscle cells)

what lines early and late parts of the dct?

cuboidal epithelium

cuboidal epithelium

the late parts of the DCT contain cuboidal ep composed of what cell types ?

-principal cells


- intercalated cells

What type of receptors do the principle cells contain ?

-anti-diuretic hormone receptors


-aldosterone receptors 


 


(bald really accessible)

-anti-diuretic hormone receptors


-aldosterone receptors



(bald really accessible)

whats the function of the intercalated cells

 carbonic anhydrase activity (pH)


 


 

carbonic anhydrase activity (pH)



how many tubules do collecting ducts receive fluid from

6 distal tubules (aprox)

in the medulla collecting ducts pair to form what

ducts of bellini

function of ureters

transfer urine from kidneys to bladder

what happens as the bladder fills up?

the ureters compress preventing urine backflow

why is the lumen of the ureter susceptible to obstruction/ injury ?

it has a v. narrow lumen

layers of the ureter

-adventitia


-muscularis


-mucose

what tissue does the adventitia of the ureters maed of and what is its function

-connective tissue


-binds ureter to surrounding tissues 

-connective tissue


-binds ureter to surrounding tissues

whats the muscularis layer of the Ureter made from?


whats its function ?

-smooth muscle


- contracts in response to expansion caused by urine enrty

describe the mucosal layer of the ureters

inner layer transitional epithelium continuous with renal pelvis and bladder

function of the bladder ?

Retains urine until micturition is convenient

where is the bladder

• Muscular sac on the floor of the pelvic cavity


• Inferior to peritoneum


• Posterior to pubic symphysis

layers of the bladder

1. adventitia: fibrous outer layer (except superior surface which is covered by parietal peritoneum) 2.muscularis: (detrusor muscle) three layers of smooth muscle mucosa 


3. transitional epithelium covered in wrinkles called rugae  

1. adventitia: fibrous outer layer (except superior surface which is covered by parietal peritoneum) 2.muscularis: (detrusor muscle) three layers of smooth muscle mucosa


3. transitional epithelium covered in wrinkles called rugae

what do the openings of the two ureters mark ?

 a smooth triangular area called the trigone – a common site of infection. 

a smooth triangular area called the trigone – a common site of infection.

why is the trigone a common site for infection ?

near urethra. bacteria goes up urethra

what happens to rugae as bladder expands

rugae flatten

which way does the bladder expand

superiorly

what happens to bladder walls as it expands

they become very thin

function of urethra

Transfers urine from bladder to exterior

where is the urethral bound in females

Bound to anterior wall of vagina by connective tissue


where do externa urethral orifices lie in women

o The external urethral orifice lies between the vaginal orifice and the clitoris 

o The external urethral orifice lies between the vaginal orifice and the clitoris

how long is the urethra in females

3-4 cm

how long is the uretra in males

18 cm

what are the 3 urethral regions in the male

-prostatic


-membraneous


-penile

describe the prostatic urethra

o 2.5cm long o Begins at bladder and passes through prostate gland

o 2.5cm long o Begins at bladder and passes through prostate gland

membranous uretra

o Short, thin-walled portion (0.5cm)


o Where urethra passes through the muscular floor of the pelvic cavity

Penile urethra

o 15cm long o Passes through the penis to the external urethral orifice

The detrusor muscle is thickened near the urethral opening in the bladder to form what ?

internal URETHRAL SPHINCTER

describe internal urethral sphincter

o Compresses urethra and retains urine


o Smooth muscle


o Involuntary control

decribe the external urethral sphincter

-situated where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor.


o Skeletal muscle


o Voluntary control

1. ureter


2. parietal peritoneum


3.detrussor muscle


4. rugae


5.uteric orifices/openings


6. internal urethral sphincter


7. urethra ?


8. inferior pubic ramus


9.external urethral sphincter


10. external urethral orifice

1. urethral orifices


2. prostate


3. prstatic urethra


4. urethral sphincter


5.bulbourethral gland


6. penile urethra


7.external urethral orifife


8. ?

cystitis

Lower urinary tract infection. occurs commonly in women believed to be caused by sexual intercourse. pain during urination

pyelitis

inflammation of renal pelvis


can be caused by kidney stones


result of inflammed ureters and bladder as they fail to excrete urine thus it remains in pelvis and leads to inflmmation there.


also caused by bacteria infections or STDs such as gonorrhea

pyelonephritis

kidney infection


can be a result of STD, kidney stones lower UTI infection and is a progression of ppyelitis



-pain during urinatioon


fever


vomotting