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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does using random number tables for assigning subjects to groups eliminate
systematic bias
nurse researcher documents the frequency of new research cases over a given time period
incidence
what is occurring when the researcher assign people to experimental and control groups at random to make groups more comparable at the outset
randomization
technique of diving groups before randomization
stratification
prospective (cohort) study
begin with the cause and look forward in time for its effect
retrospective (case control) studies
begin with outcome and look back in time for its cause
what is the observed relationship between a presumes cause called
independent variable
what is a limitation of the research design for a quantitative study
whether there will be a theoretical framework
a different dose of treatments
attention control
used to avoid bias stemming from participants awareness of a group status
masking/blinding
what type of design occurs in a retrospective stdy with dta on both dependent and independent variable collected at a single point in time
cross sectional
prospective
"cohort" look forward
retrospective
look in the past
"cross sectional"
"case control"
what type of design starts with a cause and then goes forward and looks for the effect
cohort (prospective)
what would happen to the same people simultaneously exposed and not exposed to the casual factor in an idealized research model
counterfactual
what type of research design involves an experimental intervention but no randomization that supports casual inferences
quasi experimental
cross over design
people are exposed to more than one experimental condition
factorial designs
two or more independent variables are manipulated simultaneously
which phase of a clinical trial requires an experimental design
3
4 phases of a clinical trial
phase 1- features of the intervention are finalized
phase 2- seeking opportunities for refinements
phase 3- full experimental test of treatment efficacy
phase 4- focus primarily on effectiveness and evidence about cost and benefits
studies that address the development and assessment of research tools or methods
methodologic study
study in which researchers analyze previously collected data
secondary analysis
what is US census
survey
what type of research can provide information about the effectiveness of clinical interventions that often involve a series of phases
clinical trial
what type of research can examine the quality and effectiveness of healthcare and nursing services
outcomes
what is identical replication
exact duplication of methods of an earlier study
what is a black box
the underlying unmeasured causes or mediators of the observed effects of an intervention
what is a cluster sample
multistage selection of random samples from larger units
what are 2 key considerations in assessing a sample in a quantitative study
representativeness and size
what type of sampling occurs when referrals for potential participants are made by those already in the sample
snowball
sampling design that is especially likely to yield a representative sample. what type of sample is this called
systematic
what type of analysis do researchers use to eliminate sample size needs
power
what is a population
entire aggregation in which the researcher is interested in
what is bias sampling
systematic over or under representation of an attribute vis a vis the population
which is the weakest of quantitative
convenience
what type of sampling divides the population into homogeneous strata from which elements are selected at random
stratified random sampling
what type of sampling are strata incorporated into the design
quota
what can be located in the archives that are used by historical researchers
primary and secondary sources
research term known as hermeneutics is closely related with what other research tradition
phenomenology
which approach aims to discover thoretical precepts grounded in the data
grounded theory
qualitative studies use an emergent design. when does the research design evolve
while the researcher is in the field collecting and analyzing data
what is the greatest strength of a case study
obtains depth
which design can apply to both qualitative and quantitative??
cross sectional versus longitudinal
phases of leiningers observation-particpation-refection enabler model
1) primary observation and active listening 2) primary observation with limited participation 3) primary participation with continued observation 4) primary reflection and reconfirmation of results with informants
grounded theory work with what sample size
20-30
what is typical qualitative sample size
small, nonrandom
phenomenologists work with what sample size who meets the criterion of having lived the experience under study
10 or fewer
what main qualitative tradition is theoretical sampling guided by
grounded theory studies
many qualitative studies evolve to selecting cases that will most benefit the study. what type of sample is being used
purposive (purposeful sampling)
asking early informants to refer other participants
snowball
what model of generalizability involves judgments about whether findings from an inquiry can be extrapolated to a different setting or group of people
transferability
what is data saturation
sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and redundancy is achieved
qualitative researchers often begin with with a sample where potential participants come forward and identify themselves, which type of sample is being used
convenience sampling
what type of researcher often uses key informants who serves as guides and interpreters of the culture
ethnographers
what type of research is used in a research based on theory
theoretical framework
what is not considered in determining the feasibility of a research question
relevant theories
what is a complex hypothesis
anticipated relationship between two independent variables and two dependent variables
what is the focus of research questions for a quantitaive study
identified major variables in the study under investigation are present
what is true regarding hypothesis in research reports
hypothesis are more abstract than purpose statements
what is a simple hypothesis
relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable
which is an example of a borrowed theory
banduras social cognitive theory (non nursing model)
whose major conceptual model of nursing is used by researchers
rogers science of unitary human beings
what type of theory purports to describe and explain large segments of the human experience
grand theory
which model explains and predicts the health promotion component of lifestyle
health promotion model
what are the building blocks of a theory
concepts
what type of theory attempts to explain decision making, stress, comfort, health promotion, and unpleasant symptoms
middle range theory
what is a broad abstract characterization of phenomena
theory
what is resonancy
continuos change from lower to higher frequency wave patterns in human and environmental energy fields
what is the main similarity between theories and conceptual models
use concepts as building blocks
what is the hallmark of scientific method
systematic
the power of theories lies in the ability to do what
specify the nature of the relationship that exist among phenomena and offer explanations
what was the concern of most nursing studies in the early 1900's
nursing education
is the US, in what area does research play an important role in nursing
credentialing and status
what is the highest priority for the importance of research in the nursing profession
research findings provide evidence for informing nurses decisions and actions
what is the epistemological assumption of those espousing a positive paradigm
the researcher is objective and independent of those being studies
what is involved in naturalistic qualitative research
takes place in the field
In the PICOT, which 2 components are not always needed in evidenced based practice
the C and T (Comparison of interest) (Time)
when putting research into practice, what step of the process is involved with the validity of study findings
appraising the evidence
the AGREE instrument consists ratings of quality in what type of scale
4 point scale
what is a mixed method synthesis
integrates qualitative and quantitative
what is not a major barrier to evidenced based practice
the support of organizations that reward nurses who engage in research utilization efforts
which database contains thousands of systematic reviews related to healthcare interventions
cochrane database of systematic reviews
where does evidenced based practice begin
a search for the best possible information for addressing a clinical problem
where does research utilization start
use of a set of studies in a practical application unrelated to the original research
what is the basic distinction in quantitative studies
experimental and non experimental studies
where are nurses most likely to find research results
journal articles
understanding peoples life experience
phenomenological
what is the operational definition in a quantitative study
specify how a variable will be defined and measured
which term is used for people who participate in qualitative
study participants
participants in quantitative
subjects
what is used widely by quantitative researchers
ask research questions
what is included in the methods sections of a study
strategies used to address the problem
what is the overall plan for answering the research question
research design
what is a casual relationship
cause and effect
what is the statement of the researchers expectations or predictions about relationships among study variables
hypothesis
descendancy approach (in finding studies on a topic)
using a pivotal study to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it
what do you do if you do not know the precise words for retrieving information on a topic
mapping (using ones own keywords)
what is an ancestry approach for finding studies on a topic
tracking down earlier studies cited in a reference list of a report
what is the primary source for a research literature review
description of a study written by researcher who did the study
first step in preparing a written research review
formulating a question
which database is the premier source for coverage of the biomedical literature
medline
in conducting a literature review, what is not of assistance
information from anecdotal and opinion articles included in the literature
in qualitative, what group of researchers is represented when collection of data occurs before reviewing the literature
grounded theory researchers
in qualitative, what group of researchers undertake a search for relevant material at the onset of a study
phenomenologists