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95 Cards in this Set

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ABGs
arterial blood gases
AFB
acid-fast bacillus - the type of organism that causes tuberculosis
ARDS
acute respiratory distress syndrome
BAL
bronchioalveolar lavage
Bronch
bronchoscopy
CF
cystic fibrosis
CO2
carbon dioxide
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disase
CPAP
continuous positive airway pressure
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
C&S
culture and sensitivity testing
CTPA
computed tomography pulmonary angiography
CXR
chest xray
DLCO
diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide
DOE
dyspnea or exertion
DPT
diptheria, pertussis, tetanus vacine
REV1
foced expiratory volume in 1 second
FVC
forced vital capacity - amount of gas that can be forcibly and rapidly exhaled after a full inspiration
HCO3-
bicarbonate - measured in blood to determine acidity or alkalinity
ICU
intensive are unity
LLL
left lower lobe (of lung)
LUL
left upper lobe of lung
MDI
metered-dose inhaler
NSCLC
non-small cell lung cancer
OSA
obstructive sleep apnea
PaCO2
carbon dioxide partial pressure - measure of the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood
PCP
pneumocystis pneumonia - seen in AIDS satients
PE
pulmonary embolism
PEP
positive expiratory pressure - mechanical ventilator starategy in which patient takes a deep breath then exhales through a device that resists air flow - helps refill underventilated areas of the lung
PEEP
positive end-expiratory pressure - common mechanical ventilator setting in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure
PFTs
pulmonary function tests
PND
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
PPD
purified protein derivative - substance used in a tuberculosis test
RDS
respiratory distress syndrome - newborn condition from absence of surfactant - causes dyspnea and cyanosis
RLL
right lower lobe (of lung)
RSV
respiratory syncytial virus - common cause of bronchiolitis, broncho-pneumonia, and the common cold, esp. in children
RUL
right upper lobe (of lung)
RV
residual - amount of air remaining in lungs at the end of maximal expiration
SCLC
small cell lung cancer
SOB
shortness of breath
TB
tuberculosis
TLC
total lung capacity - volume of air in lungs at the end of maximal inspiration
URI
upper respiratory infection
Vt
tidal volume - amount of air inhaled and exhaled during a normal ventilation
VATS
vido-assisted thoracic surgery (thoracoscopy)
VC
vital capacity - equals inspiratory reserve volume plus expiratory reserve volume plus tidal volume
V/Q scan
ventilation-perfusion scan - radioactive perfusion throught the lung capillaries (lung scan)
hematopoietic stem cells
cells in the bone marrow that become red and white blood cells
5 types of immature blood cell that arise from hematopoietic stem cells
erythroblast, myeloblast, monoblast, lymphoblast, megakaryoblast
development phases of erythrocytes
hematopoietic stem cell> erythroblast> normoblast> reticulocyte> erythrocyte
development phases of granulocytes
hematopoietic stem cell> myeloblast> myelocytes> band cells> basophils/neutrophils/eosinophils
development phases of mononuclear agranulocytes
hematopoietic stem cell> monoblast/lymphoblast> monocyte/lymphocyte
development phases of platelets
hemapoietic stem cell> megakaryoblast> megakaryocyte> platelets
heme
iron-containing pigment
globin
protein
oxyhemoglobin
combination of oxygen and hemoglobin
erythropoietin
hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells
hemolysis
macrophages in the spleen liver and bone marrow destroy worn-out erythrocytes
breakdown components from hemolysis
heme> bilirubin, iron
globin>protein
granulocytes/ polymorphonuclear leukocytes
white blood cells with multi-lobed nuclei and granules
basophils
granulocyte containing granules of heparin and histamine, which stain dark
heparin
anti-clotting substance
histamine
chemical released in allergic responses
eosinophils
granulocyte with red staining granules which increase in number during allergic reaction, and engulf substance that triggers reaction
neutrophils
granulocytes with granules which do not stain intensely. Accumulate at sites of infection, ingest and destroy bacteria
phagocyte
a cell which engulfs, (eats) bacteria or foreign substance
colony-stimulating factors
specific proteins promote the growth of granulocytes in bone marrow - G-CSF and GM-CSF are given to cancer patients to restore granulocyte production
polymorphonuclear agranulocytes
neutrophils
lymphocytes
mononuclear leukocytes made in bone marrow and lymph nodes - attack foreign matter, and also make antibodies
antigens
foreign substances - bacteria dn viruses
monocytes
phagocytic cells which dispose of dead and dying cells and other tissue debris
phagocytosis
ingestion by a phagocyte
megakaryocytes
giant blood cells that form in blood marrow, and break up into platelets
4 major plasma proteins
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, prothrombin
fibrinogen
clotting protein
prothrombin
clotting protein
albumin
maintains the proper proportion of water in the blood
globulins - 3 types
alpha, beta and gamma
gamma globulins
immunoglobulins - antibodies which bind to antigens.
electrophoresis
process of separating immunoglobulins from other plasma proteins by passing electrical current through plasma
-apheresis
S. to remove
-poetin
S. to create
plasmapheresis
process of separating plasma from cells, then removing plasma from patient. done by centrifuge
packed red cells
whole blood with most of the plasma removed
disseminated intravascular coagulation
life threatening condition following hemolysis in which excessive clots form in blood vessels, after transfusion of blood of a different type than that of the recipient
coagulation
blood clotting
fibrin clot
blood clot formed by fibrinogen, a plasma protein
substances which help change fibrinogen into fibrin clot (5)
tissue, clotting factors, plus calcium, prothrombin, thrombin
hemophiliac
persons missing important clotting factors, such as factor VIII or IX
serum
substance left behind after clot retracts into a tight ball
anticoagulant
substances that inhibit blood clotting, prevent blood clots from forming in blood vessels
Heparin
an anticoagulant
2 anticoagulant drugs
warfarin, Coumadin
Rh factor
antigen on red blood cells of Rh+ individuals
thrombin
enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation