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29 Cards in this Set

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Functional unit of the kidney:

blood flow from segmental aa.?

Where do the arcuate aa. run?

Terminal branches of the
arcuate arteries ascend into the cortex, running between medullary rays (lobules)
nephron

segmental --> interlobar --> arcuate --> interlobular --> afferent arterioles

along the cortico-medullary border

interlobular
Which part of the nephron filters fluid from the blood?

Which part modifies the filtrate into urine?

Tuft of fenestrated capillaries:

What surround the glomerulus?
renal corpuscle

tubular portion

glomerulus

Bowman's capsule
Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule is made of:

Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule:

What vessels take up substances resorbed by the tubular epithelium?
podocytes

Strat. squamous epithelium

peritubular capillaries
Describe the filtration barrier:

Glomerular capillaries allow _______ (4) to pass, and has barriers to ______________ (2).
Fluid from capillaries --> fenestrated capillary endothelium --> basal lamina --> podocytes of visceral Bowman's layer--> all considering polyanionic charge
From capillaries leaks into the urinary space through a complex filtration barrier

allow H2O, urea, glucose, small proteins
block formed elements in blood, macromolecules
Describe where extraglomerular vs introglomerular mesangial cells are located
1. Extraglomerular mesangial cells - found at vascular pole
2. Intraglomerular mesangial cells - found within renal corpuscle.
Mesangial cells are modified __________.

4 fxns of mesangial cells?
smooth muscle

contractile - control blood blow thru capillaries
supportive - where renal corpuscle absent
phagocytic - resorption/maintenance of basal lamina
secretory - secrete PG's, endothelins (constrict arterioles)
What are 4 components of the lamina rarae?

Pedicles of the podocytes are separated by __________.

each pedicle has a glycocalyx made of __________.
Type IV collagen
laminin
fibronectin
-charged proteoglycans

filtration slits

-charged podocalyxin
Filtration slit diaphragm contains the protein _________.

What does nephrin do?

Mutations in the nephrin gene are associated with ____________.
nephrin

retard passage of molecules through fenestrae and basal lamina

congenital nephrotic syndrome
Describe the filtration process:

What part of the kidney do you see glomeruli?
blood enters through afferent arteriole --> basal lamina catches large molecules --> -charged molecules caught by lamina and podocytes --> fluid passes through filtration slits to urinary space

cortex only
What kind of epithelium is in the PCT?

Where are the nuclei?

Describe the luminal border:

Can you see the borders between cells?
eosinophilic cuboidal/low columnar

central

ragged, microvilli

No
What gets absorbed in the PCT?

Function of the Loop of Henle?

Descending loop: permeable to what?
Describe the filtrate.
Na+, Cl-, H2O (via aquaporin-1)

help form hypertonic urine by forming an osmotic gradient in the interstitial fluid of the medulla

permeable to H2O, salts

isotonic at first --> more hypertonic (H2O reabsorbed)
Ascending loop: contains what?
permeable to H2O?

Describe the filtrate.
Na+/K+/Cl- pump (symporter)

not permeable to H2O

salt loss while keeping H2O = isotonic/hypotonic
DCT: histology?

Histology and fxn of principal cells? Intercalated cells?
low cuboidal epithelium, round/oval nuclei at apex, fewer microvilli (larger lumen)

principal - light staining, resorb Na+, secrete K+

intercalated - basophilic, secrete H+, HCO3-
Macula densa:
Location and fxn?
Sensitive to what?

What makes up the juxtoglomerular apparatus?

Which cells produce renin?
regulate GFR by constricting the afferent arteriole

sensitive to Na+, Cl-

macula densa, JG cells of afferent arteriole, extraglomerular mesangial cells (lacis, polkissen)

JG cells
Describe the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway:

Fxn?
kidneys - renin to:
liver - angiotensinogen to ang I to:
lungs - ang I to ang II (ACE) to:
adrenal gland - aldosterone
aldosterone to kidneys

aldosterone - resorb Na+
Secreted by atrial myocytes , increases diuresis:

opposes action of _______, inhibits release of ______.

secreted by DCT/CD cells, inhibits NaCl and water resorption:
ANF

opposes aldosterone, inhibits ADH release

urodilatin
Collecting ducts: histology?

Responsive to what hormone?

Contain what transmembrane protein?
distinct borders, cuboidal/columnar epithelium, poorly stained

ADH/vasopressin

Aquaporin-2 (AQP-2)
What are cells located between capillary loops that replace normal ct cells?
1. Contractile to reduce (receptors for angiotensin II) or increase
(receptors for vasodilator atrial natriuretic factor) blood flow through
capillaries
2. Support in regions where the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule is not present
3. Phagocytic, function in resorption/maintenance of the basal lamina (intraglomerular only)
4. Secrete prostaglandins & endothelins
How do you tell the difference between the proximal and distal tubule micro
Proximal will be slightly bigger with aggrevated border
distal will be nice and smooth and slightly smaller
Name the five segments that the segmental part of the renal arteries supply
1. apical
2. anterosuperior
3. anteroinferior
4. inferior
5. posterior
Identify all
a. urinary pole- where bulk operations begins
b. urinary space
c. parietal layer of Bowman's capsule
d. efferent arteriole
e. afferent arteriole
f. vascular pole
Label yellow spot and all black squares
Nephron Label parts
what are the things being pointed to and what do they do?
Mesangial Cells-
- Contractile – reduce/increase blood flow through capillaries
● Supportive in area where the visceral layer of the renal corpuscle is absent
● Phagocytic – resorption & maintenance of the basal lamina *
● Secretory – secrete prostaglandins & endothelins (induce constriction of aff/eff arterioles).
This is basal lamina... what is A and B and what does B contain?
a. lamina densa
b. lamina rarae- Type IV collagen, Laminin, Fibronectin, Negatively-charged, proteoglycans
What part of nephron is this and how can you tell?
PCT- due to rugged villi
Which are pct's and which are dct's?
Blue= dct
Red= PCT