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146 Cards in this Set

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What do the ribosomes do?
make proteins
What do the ribosomes do?
make proteins
Golgi Apparatus
Packages stuff
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Produce Lipids
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Produce proteins
Mitochondria
Produce ATP
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate
Differences between an animal and plant cell
Presence of large vacuoles, chloroplasts, and cell wall in plant cells.
Carbohydrates are composed of?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What ratio is involved with carbs?
1,2,1 ratio
What is C6 H12 06?
Glucose
What are the monosaccharides?
Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Glucose+Fructose makes?
Sucrose
Glucose+Glucose makes?
Maltose
Glucose+galactose makes?
Lactose
What is sucrose?
Table sugar
What is maltose?
Grain sugar
What is lactose?
Milk sugar
What are the elements of lipids?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
What is a function of lipids?
Long term storage of energyMake up cell membrane
What are the elements of proteins?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, Nitrogen
What is the subunit of proteins?
Amino Acids
What are the elements of Nucleic acid?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous.
Cytosine pairs with?
Guanine
Adenine pairs with?
Thymine
In RNA what does Adenine pair with?
Uracil
Simple diffusion goes from high to low concentration true or false?
TRUE
Exocytosis is?
Moving items out of the cell
Pinocytosis?
To drink, aka bring fluids into the cell
Phagocytosis?
To eat, aka bring food into the cell
Endocytosis
to bring into the cell
A hypotonic solution is?
A low concentration of solutes
What are the four stages of Mitosis?
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
What occurs in prophase?
DNA forms into chromosomesThe nuclear membrane breaks downMicrotubules start forming.
What occurs in metaphase?
Chromosomes align at the centre
What occurs in anaphase?
Chromosomes are pulled apart.
What happens in telophase?
New nuclear membrane appears.
What is a chromatid?
Half of a chromosome
Meiosis produces what type of cell?
Haploid
What occurs in prophase I?
DNA condenses into chromosomesSynapsis occurs tetrad is formed.Swapping over occurs
Metaphase I
Tetrads align along the centreDNA from mother or father is randomly put on either side, this is the second chance for variation.
What is the equatorial plate?
The centre of the cell.
Are the stages of meiosis II the same as mitosis?
Yes
What is trisomy?
When you have one extra chromosome in a haploid cell.
What is monosomy?
When you have one less chromosome in a haploid cells.
What is karyotyping?
Looking at chromosomes in a cell
What are the types of white blood cells?(BLEMN)
NeutrophilsEosinophilsBasophilsLymphocytesMonocytes
What is the scientific name for white blood cells?
leukocytes.
What is the scientific name for red blood cells?
Erythrocytes.
What is the scientific name for platelets?
thrombocytes
Which type of blood vessel has backflow valves?
Veins
Where is the tricuspid valve located?
between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Where is the mitral valve?
between the left atrium and left ventricle
Starting from the pulmonary semilunar valve what are the valves a drop of blood will travel through? (In order)
Mitral valveAortic Semilunar valveTricuspidback around to the pulmonary semilunar valve
Where does the electric pulse go in the heart?
Starts at the SA node ––> AV node ––> AV bundle (AKA bundle of his) ––> purkinje fibers
Carbohydrates are?
Sugars, Starch, and cellulose.
the bolus travels down the?
Esophagus.
What is the name of the sphincter that keeps food from going the wrong direction?
Cardiac Sphincter
These cells secrete mucus.
goblet cells
These cells secrete pepsinogen.
Chief cells
These muscle contractions move food down the esophagus.
peristalsis
how long is the duodenum?
First 30cm of the small intestine
what does bile do?
Break down fats.
What do the ribosomes do?
make proteins
Where is the Jejunum and Ileum?
Small Intestine
Where are the most nutrients absorbed?
Small Intestine
What produces bile?
Liver
What is hydrochloric acid made of?
Pepsin, Mucus, and water
What keeps the stomach from digesting itself?
Mucus
What activates pepsinogen?
HCL (Hydrochloric acid)
What are the blood vessels a drop of blood will flow through starting at the Aorta?
Aorta, Artery, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venule, Vein, Vena cava
What is the larynx?
Voice box
What automotive part may the trachea be compared to?
Flex hose
What order do the bronchi go?
Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Bronchioles
Does breathing work with similar principles to billows?
Yes, Low pressure inside lungs to breathe in, and vice versa
Which type of breathing is used consciously?
Intercostal
Does the rate of breathing work like a O2 fuel sensor behind a Cat converter?
Yes, if oxygen is too low breathing will increase
Does oxygen diffuse into blood?
Yes
What is the different levels of classification?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What is the structure of a virus like?
Well designed, single piece of RNA or DNA that is surrounded by protein
What is the lytic cycle?
Inject into host, replicate viruses until cell bursts.
What is the lysogenic cycle
Add itself to host DNA, once triggered create viruses
What is gene therapy?
The removal of a virus's DNA from an infected cell.
Where does mitosis take place in plants?
Meristem
What is the dermal tissue?
The outside tissue
What are the three types of ground tissue?
Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma
What is collenchyma?
Makes cell wall thicker (strands, e.g. celery)
What is sclerenchyma?
Stiffest, for support
What is a petiole?
where the leaf attaches to the stem
How long does primary growth last?
First year of plant life
What is the purpose of roots?
Anchor, Store, Absorb
Herbaceous stems are?
Stems like bean plant, pea plant, tomato, etc.
Is the palm tree a woody plant?
No.
What does the hormone Auxin do?
elongation
Gravitropism, what does it do?
Sense gravity
What does thigmotropism do?
Sense a thing touching it.
What does gibberellin do?
Grows in size.
What does cytokines do?
Increase cell division.
What is an example species you may find in porifera?
Sponge
Where is the fluke worm classified?
Platyhelminthes
What is an example species of Mollusk?
Clam, Oyster, Octopus
Example species of echinoderm?
Starfish, Sand Dollar, Sea Urchin.
What is an example species of arthropod?
Insect, Lobster/crayfish, spider.
What lowers the acidity of chyme after it leaves the stomach?
Bicarbonate
External costal muscles send the diaphragm in what direction in what direction?
up
What is the name of the disease caused by smoking to the alveoli?
Empohsemia
When does the lysogenic cycle go lytic?
When the immune system is weak.
Name a virus that affects plants
Tobacco Mosaic
T4 bacteriophage virus affects?
Bacteria
HIV and Herpes both use which cycle?
Lysogenic
The different shapes of bacteria are?
Cocci, Bacilli, Spiral
What are modes of being motile for bacteria?
Cillia, Flagella
Does bacteria have a proper nucleus?
No, they are prokaryotic.
What might a decomposer bacteria be called?
saprophyte
A bacteria that needs oxygen is called?
Obligate Aerobes
What is a protist like?
Fungi like, plant like, animal like
What are the three basic types of ground tissue?
Ground, Vascular, Dermal.
HCL is secreted from which cells?
Parietal
Where is the pyloric sphincter?
at the entrance to the small intestine
Where does bicarbonate come from?
The pancreas
This enzyme breaks down lipids
lipase
This enzyme breaks down starches
Amylase
This enzyme breaks down proteins
Trypsin
This enzyme breaks down nucleic acids.
Nuclease
Which hormone stimulates the gallbladder to release bile?
CCK
What do proteins do?
can be used in structures of the cell, also for moving things in or out of the cell.
What happens to carbohydrates that are not used immediately in the body?
Converted to Glycogen and stored as fat and liver until needed.
What are the three major groups of chemicals in DNA?
Sugars, phosphate groups, and four nitrogenous bases.
How does Lactic Acid fermentation work?
Glucose broken down into lactic acid
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
James Watson
The ectoderm will form what?
Skin and the nervous system
The endoderm will form what?
The lining of the gut
The mesoderm will form what?
Circulatory, Reproductive, excretory, and muscular systems
How many body layers does a sponge have?
two layers
How many body layers does a species in cnidaria have?
Two layers
What do vitamins/minerals do?
Help with chemical reactions
What do carbohydrates do?
Primary source of energy
Name three things that affect diffusion
Pressure, temperature, concentration
Name two types of endocytosis
Pinocytosis and phagocytosis
What causes down syndrome?
extra copy of chromosome 21
What stimulates the pancreatic and bile secretions?
Scretin
What stimulates release of gastric juices into the stomach
Gastrin
What are the major organs of the lymphatic system?
Thymus, Spleen, Tonsils
These organs are a nursery for lymphocytes
Thymus and Spleen
What two things control the opening and closing of guard cells?
Water and potassium ions
What are the parts of the amniotic egg?
Amnion, yolk sac, allantois, chorion