Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/103

Click to flip

103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CELL THEORY
1) All living things are made up of one or more cells and their products
2) The cell is the simplest unit of life
3) All cells come from pre-existing cells
There are two types of cells...
1) prokaryotic

2) eukaryotic
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
-No nucleus or other organelles
-Organisms are single-celled
-Very simple
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
-More complex organization
-Organelles exist and compartmentalize the cell's functions
-Much larger than prokaryotic
CYTOPLASM
WHAT IS IT:
Jelly-like substance that fills the cell

FUNCTION:
Holds organelles in place, allows cell reaction to occur
CELL MEMBRANE
WHAT IS IT:
Semi-permeable, double membrane

FUNCTION:
Determines what enters and leaves the cell
NUCLEUS
WHAT IS IT:
Control center of the cell

FUNCTION:
Controls all cell activities and contains DNA/chromosones
MITOCHONDRIA
WHAT IS IT:
Powerhouse, site of energy production from sugars by cellular respiration.

FUNCTION:
Makes oxygen available to the cell - there are more mitochondria in more active cells
ER - ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
WHAT IS IT:
Network of 3D tubes and pockets that run through the cytoplasm from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane

FUNCTION:
Used for transport
VACUOLES
FUNCTION:
Many functions depending on the cell - storage of food/wastes, or water, removing waste from the cell, or maintaining fluid pressure
VACUOLE # IN ANIMAL CELLS
Many small vacuoles (not visible)
VACUOLE # IN PLANT CELLS
1 large vacuole
GOLGI COMPLEX
FUNCTION:
Collect and process materials to be removed from the cell
CELL WALL
WHAT IS IT:
Wall found only in plant cells just outside the cell membrane

FUNCTION:
Provides support and protection
CHLOROPLASTS
WHAT IS IT:
Found only in plant cells, contains chlorophyl

FUNCTION:
Makes them and the plants green and allows photosynthesis to take place
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
When plants make sugar from sunlight energy - Does not replace mitochondria (they are still needed in plant cells)
RIBOSOMES
WHAT IS IT:
Site of protein synthesis, exist free in the cytoplasm as well as attached to the outer surface of the rough ER
CENTRIOLES
WHAT IS IT:
Only in animal cells

FUNCTION:
Create and control spindle fibers in cell division
NUCLEOLUS
WHAT IS IT:
Area inside the nucleus where ribosomes are made
LYSOSOMES
WHAT IS IT:
The garbage can of the cell

FUNCTION:
Contains digestive enzymes to help eliminate waste
DNA
WHAT IS IT:
The hereditary material found in the nucleus

FUNCTION:
Makes up chromatin and chromosomes
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE ACRONYM
MI FROG ED
M
Movement
I
Irritability: response to stimulus or environmental changes
F
Feeding: plants make their own food using photosynthesis, animals must consume food
R
Reproduction
O
Organization: cells organized in tissues into organs into organ systems
G
Growth: building body parts
E
Excretion: eliminate waste
D
Death :(
OCULAR LENS
Look through here, 10x magnification
BODY TUBE
Holds eyepiece and objective lenses at the proper distance
ARM
Connects base and tube (carry it with one hand here)
REVOLVING NOSEPIECE
Holds objective lenses, rotates to put correct lens in place
OBJECTIVE LENS
Magnifies things
Low - 4x
Medium - 10x
High power - 40x
CLIPS
Holds the slide in position
DIAPHRAGM
Controls the amount of light reaching the specimen
STAGE
Holds the slide
FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB
Used with medium and high power lenses to focus the specimen
COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB
Used only with low power lens to focus the specimen
LIGHT SOURCE
Makes it easier to see the details of the specimen
BASE
Supports the microscope (hold with second hand here)
THE CELL CYCLE
Responsible for the growth and development of individuals by allowing cells to divide
WHY DO WE NEED NEW CELLS?
-Replace dead ones, repair body, and for growth
LIFE SPAN
Brain: 60+ years
Red blood: 120 days
Stomach lining: 2 days
Skin: 20 days
PHASES OF CELL CYCLE
Interphase (G1, S, G2)
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
INTERPHASE
Longest stage for most cells
-DNA replicates itself (S phase)
-More organelles are formed
-Chromatin coil to form chromosomes (G2)
-Once chromosomes form, division begins
PROPHASE (STAGE 1 OF MITOSIS)
-Can see 2 stranded chromosomes under the microscope
-Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear
-Spindle fibers appear (from centrioles or poles) and attach to each centromere
-Begin to move toward centre
METAPHASE
Chromosomes are pulled by spindle fibres until they line up at the middle of the cell
ANAPHASE
-Spindle fibres shorten and pull the centromeres apart
-The 2 strands separate and go to opposite ends of the cell
TELOPHASE
-Spindle fibres disappear
-Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear
-Chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin
-Two nuclei in one cell
CYTOKINESIS
Cytoplasm divides
CYTOKINESIS IN ANIMAL CELL
Cell membrane pinches in the middle
CYTOKINESIS IN PLANT CELL
Cell plate grows at the center and becomes and cell wall
CANCER
Abnormal cell division
TUMOURS
When cells divide out of control and begin to pile up on each other
BENIGN TUMOUR
Tumours that do not have a serious effect on surrounding tissue except to crowd it; do not break off
MALIGNANT TUMOUR
Tumours that produce chemicals that interfere with and can destroy tissue around it
-They can break off, move through the circulatory system and settle somewhere else ("metastasis")
CAUSES OF CANCER
Mutations - Changes in DNA:
1) Carcinogens

2) Genes
CARCINOGENS
Factors in the environment that can cause cancer - smoke, radiation, UV rays, x-rays, etc.
GENES
Genes passed from parent to child can make the child more likely to develop some types of cancer (you cannot inherit cancer directly)
HOW TO DIAGNOSE CANCER
1) Endoscopy
2) X-rays
3) Ultrasound
4) CT Scan
5) MRI
ENDOSCOPY
Fibre-optic cable with camera and forceps to look inside and take samples
X-RAYS
Look for masses in tissue, but can also cause cancers
ULTRASOUND
Like X-rays but with ultra high frequency sound, used for soft tissues
CT SCAN
Multiple angles of x-rays assembled by computers to form detailed images
MRI
Uses magnetic fields and radio frequencies to create a BD model of the tissue
HOW TO TREAT CANCER
1) Surgery

2) Radiation

3) Chemotherapy
SURGERY
If tumour is accessible (may not be - wrapped around blood vessel or nerve)
RADIATION
Upsets mitosis and cell division
-Kills off cancer cells: very focused
CHEMOTHERAPY
Uses drugs and affects ALL dividing cells, not just cancerous ones
(Used with radiation to stop division and destroy cancer cells)
WHAT IS A SPECIALIZED CELL?
Cells with physical and chemical differences that allow them to perform one job very well
IN ANIMAL CELLS
-Red blood cells
-Muscle cells
-Fat cells
-Skin cells
-White blood cells
-Nerve cells
-Bone cells
-Sperm cells
-Photophores
RED BLOOD CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Contains hemoglobin, they are very smooth

FUNCTION:
Carries oxygen through the blood line
MUSCLE CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Arranged in bundles (muscle fibres)

FUNCTION:
They can contract to make the fibre shorter and bones move
FAT CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Have one large vacuole

FUNCTION:
Stores fat molecules, stores chemical energy
SKIN CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Fit together and cover your body

FUNCTION:
Protects inside cells and reduces water loss
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
FUNCTION:
Move around to engulf bacteria and fight infection
NERVE CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Long and thin, they conduct electrical impluses

FUNCTION:
Coordinates body activity
BONE CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Collect calcium from food, build bone around themselves

FUNCTION:
Allows bone growth and repair, creates the skeleton
SPERM CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Move independently, they carry DNA from the male parent which will try and join with a female egg
PHOTOPHORES
WHAT IS IT:
found in nocturnal or deep ocean animals

FUNCTION:
emits light
IN PLANT CELLS
-Transport cell 1
-Transport cell 2
-Storage cells
-Photosynthetic cells
-Epidermal cells
-Guard cells
TRANSPORT CELL 1
FUNCTION:
Carry water and dissolved minerals throughout the plant
TRANSPORT CELL 2
FUNCTION:
Carry dissolved sugars around the plant
STORAGE CELLS
FUNCTION:
Store starch as a source of energy for the plant
PHOTOSYNTHETIC CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Contain chloroplasts

FUNCTION:
Collect energy from sunlight to make sugar
EPIDERMAL CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Found on young roots

FUNCTION:
Uses its hairs to absorb water from the soil
GUARD CELLS
WHAT IS IT:
Found in the surface of leaves

FUNCTION:
Controls water loss
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
Atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
4 TYPES OF TISSUE
1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscle
4) Nerve
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Thin sheet of tightly packed cells that cover body surfaces and line internal organs and body cavities
eg. stomach lining
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Provides support and protection for various body parts
eg. bone
MUSCLE TISSUE
Contains proteins that can contract and enable the body to move
eg. skeletal muscle
NERVE TISSUE
Conducts electrical signals from one part to another
eg. brain
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION BENEFITS
-Life-saving
-Improves quality of life
-Satisfaction
-Knowledge of systems/research
2 RISKS OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTS
1) Rejection

2) Weak immune system
REJECTION
When the tissues of the donor don't match those of the recipient and their immune system tries to kill it
WEAKENED IMMUNE SYSTEM
Cyclosporine (which is taken to prevent dangers of rejection) weakens your immune system, making you more susceptible to infection and disease
TRANSPLANT "BANKING" TIMES
Most tissues: up to 5 years
Organs: immediately
LIVING DONOR OPTIONS
1) Kidney (donate 1 out of 2)

2) Lung (two donors each donate one lobe)

3) Liver (donate 1/3 and both partial livers regrow)
DECEASED DONORS
-Signed organ donation card/family gives consent
-Most transplants are from deceased donors
XENOTRANSPLANTATION
Use of tissues/organs from other species in transplantation (parts are cleaned first)