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35 Cards in this Set

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Hatred of people from different races, religions, ethnic groups, sexual orientations, or nations
Prejudice
Beliefs that associates a group of people with certain traits
---Can be positive (Asians are good at math) or negative (Mexicans are lazy)
Stereotypes
Any behavior directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group
Discrimination
We first sort people into groups on the basis of common attributes (like race or gender)
Social Categorization
What is the two step process for how stereotypes are formed?
1.) Social Categorizaton
2.) We perceive groups to which we belong (a.k.a. ingroups) as different from group to which we don’t belong (a.k.a. outgroups)
The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among outgroup members than among ingroup members
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
Why do we assume homogeneity of outgroups?
1.) Less chance to associate with outgroup and therefore little chance to notice differences
2.) Little chance to encounter sample of outgroup.
What are the two types of theories about groups?
1.) Entity theorists
2.) Incremental theorists
People who see social groups as relatively fixed, static entities and the borders between groups as relatively clear and rigid
--e.g., More likely to see group differences as heredity and biological.
Entity theorists
Less consistency within groups. Groups are perceived as changeable with fuzzy boundaries.
Incremental theorists
Perception of a correlation between variables that are only slightly or not at all related.
---e.g, women are bad drivers; black men make bad fathers
Illusionary correlation
When are illusionary correlations more likely to be accepted?
1.) When variables are distinctive
2.) When variables are expected to be associated
Classifying people who deviate from the typical category into a “subcategory” thereby allowing one to maintain initial beliefs about the category
Subtyping
What is this an example of?: e.g, women stay at home and take care of family, but you find one woman is an executive in a company. You create a subcategory of working women that explains only her so that you can keep your judgement about women in general.
Subtyping
A tendency to perceive stimuli that differ from expectations as being even more different than they really are
---e.g., women who are as aggressive as men are seen as more aggressive
contrast effects
What is it when well learned categories (like stereotypes) become automatic and unconscious
automatic stereotypes
When do we revise stereotypes?
1.) When believed "typical member is behaving atypically
2.) When many individuals of groups are differentiating from stereotype
3.) If people deviate from stereotype only moderately, not extremely
When can we control making stereotypes?
1.) When we have personal information about an individual member of a group
2.) When we have the cognitive ability to focus on information about an individual
3.) When we are motivated to form accurate, unbiased impressions
4.) Focusing on the individual reduces stereotyping
5.) Taking person’s perspective
6.) Exposure to counter-stereotypic examples (e.g., female business leaders)
The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources
Realistic conflict theory
Feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared to other groups
Relative deprivation
What are the two types of relative deprivation?
1.) Egoistic Deprivation - A concern for one’s own self-interest
2.) Fraternal Deprivation - A concern for the interests of one’s group
The tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups
Ingroup Favoritism
The tendency to derogate or discriminate against outgroups to better the status of the ingroup
Outgroup Derogation
The theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance self-esteem
Social Identity Theory (SIT)
Conditions that arouse Social Identity Theory (SIT)
1.) Size of group
2.) Status within the ingroup
3.) Self-esteem investment
4.) Culture
A form of prejudice that surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable, and easy to rationalize
Modern racism
Often our conscious attitudes (which we can control) are at odds with our unconscious attitudes (which we cannot control) for negative feelings towards a group
Implicit vs. Explicit Prejudice
The theory that direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions
Contact Hypothesis
Conditions in which Contact Hypothesis thrives
1.) Equal status
2.) Personal interaction between members of the different groups
3.) Cooperative activities that fulfill superordinate goals
4.) Social norms (defined by relevant authorities) that favor intergroup contact
Shared goals that can be achieved only through cooperation among individuals or groups
Superordinate Goals
Prejudice and discrimination based on a person’s gender
Sexism
The theory that small gender differences seem more significant because of the unequal social roles occupied by men and women
Social Role Theory
A form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate, chivalrous, but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings
Ambivalent Sexism
The fear that one’s own actions or behaviors would validate negative stereotypes about one’s group
Stereotype Threat
How the Stereotype Threat can hamper achievements:
1.) Stress of validating a stereotype can directly interfere with performance
2.) If threat is chronic in a domain, it may cause an individual to dismiss the domain as not relevant to their identity or self esteem