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37 Cards in this Set

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What perspective reveals the power of society to shape individual lives?
the sociological perspective
* what we commonly think of as personal choice- whether or not to go to college, how many children we will have, etc.
the sociological perspective
What does where we live- high income, middle income, low income- shape?
the lives we lead
why are societies throughout the world so connected?
*new technology allowing communication
*immigration from around the world
*trade across national boundries created a global economy
research by sociologists play an important role in what?
shaping public policy
on what type of level does using the sociological perspective help us see the opportunities and limits in our lives and empowers us to be active citizens?
on a personal level
what happend in the 18th and 19th centuries that made people more aware of their surroundings and helped trigger the development of sociology?
rapid social change
what moved work from homes to factories, weakening the traditions that had guided community life for centuries
the rise of an industrial economy
what created many social problems such as crime and homelessness
explosive growth of cities
what encouraged people to question the structure of society based on ideas of liberty and social rights
political change
who named sociology in 1838 to describe a new way of looking at society?
Auguste Comte
what is a way of understanding based on science?
*also what Comte used to understand society
positivism
countries that experienced the most rapid social change were the countries that experienced this first
sociology
the systematic study of human society
sociology
the special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
sociological perspective
the study of the larger world and our society's place in it
global perspective
nations with the highest overall standard of living
high income countries
nations with the standard of living about average for the world as a whole
middle income countries
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
low income countries
a statement of how and why specific facts are tested
theory
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
theoretical approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
structural-functional approach
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
social structure
the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
social functions
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
manifest functions
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
latent functions
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
social dysfunction
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
social conflict approach
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men
gender-conflict approach
support of social equality for women and men
feminism
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
race-conflict approach
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
macro-level orientation
a close up focus on social interaction in specific situations
micro-level orientation
a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
symbolic-interaction approach
a simplified description applied to every person in some category
stereotype
what helps us understand the difference between well-grounded generalizations and unfair stereotypes
sociology
studies how people in everyday interaction, construct reality
symbolic-interaction approach