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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a social condition in which people find it difficult to guide their behavior by norms they experience as weak, unclear, or conflicting
Capital Punishment
the application of the death penalty for a capital crime
an act prohibited by law
Criminal Justice System
the reactive agencies of the state that include the police, courts, and prisons
any behavior that violates a norm
Differential Association
the notion that the earlier, the more frequent, the more intense, and the longer the duration of the contacts people have in deviant settings, the greater the probability that they, too, will become deviant
High-Technology Crime
crime committed through the use of advanced electronic media
Index Crimes
crimes reported by the FBI in its Uniform Crime Reports. These offenses consist of four categories of violent crime against people - murder, rape, robbery, and assault - and four categories of crime against property - burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson
the process by which individuals incorporate within their personalities the standards of behavior prevalent within the larger society
Organized Crime
Large-Scale bureaucratic organizations that provide illegal goods and services in public demand
Primary Deviance
behavior that violates social norms but usually goes unnoticed by the agents of social control
relapse into criminal behavior
Secondary Deviance
deviance that individuals adopt in response to the reactions of other individuals
Social Control
methods and strategies that regulate behavior within society
Victimless Crime
an offense in which no one involved is considered a victim
White-Collar Crime
crime committed by relatively affluent persons, often in the course of business activities
Social Control
those that lead us to internalize our societys normative expectations, those that structure our world of social experience, and those that employ various formal and informal social sanctions
Emile Durkenheim
theory of anomie
Robert K. Merton
built onto the idea of anomie and social cohesion - structural strain, deviance derives from societal stresses
The Cultural Transmission Theory
the similarities between the way deviant behavior is acquired and the way in which other behavior is acquired
Edwin H. Sutherland
elaborated on the cultural transmission theory within his theory of differential association
Closed System
a stratification system in which people have great difficulty changing their status
Culture of Poverty
the view that the poor possess self-perpetuating lifeways characterized by weak ego structures, lack of impulse control, a present-time orientation, and a sense of resignation and fatalism
Dual Labor Market
an economy characterized by two sectors, the primary, or core, sector offers 'good jobs,' and the secondary, or periphery, sector offers 'bad jobs'
Horizontal Mobility
movement from one social status to another that is approximately equivalent in rank
the amount of money people receive
Intergenerational Mobility
a comparison of the social status of parents and their children at some point in their respective careers
Intragenerational Mobility
a comparison of the social status of a person over an extended time
Life Chances
the likelihood that individuals and groups will enjoy desired goods and services, fulfilling experiences, and opportunities for living healthy and long lives
Objective Method
an approach to the identification of social classes that employs such yardsticks as income, occupation, and education
Open System
a stratification system in which people can change their status with relative ease
the ability of individuals and groups that realize their will in human affairs even if it involves the resistance of others
the social respect, administration, and recognition associated with a particular social status
Reputational Method
an approach to identifying social classes that involves asking people how they classify others
Self-Placement Method
an approach to identifying social classes that involves self-classification
Social Differentiation
the process by which a society becomes increasingly specialized over time
Social Mobility
the process in which individuals or groups more from one level (stratum) to another in the stratification system
Social Stratification
the structured ranking of individuals and groups; their grading into hierarchal layers or strata
Socioeconomic Life Cycle
a sequence of stages that begins with birth into a family with a specific social status and proceeds through childhood, socialization, schooling, job seeking, occupational achievement, marriage, and the formation and functioning of a new family unit
Style of Life
the magnitude and manner of people's consumption of goods and services
Vertical Mobility
movement of individuals from one social status to another of higher or lower rank
what people own
cultural assimilation, or the process in which cultural elements of one group change in the direction of another group
the final stage of assimilation in which it it becomes impossible to distinguish formerly distinct ethnic groups in a society
those processes whereby groups with distinctive identities become culturally and socially fused
the arbitrary denial of privilege, prestige, and power to members of a minority group whose qualifications are equal to those of members of the dominant group
Environmental Racism
the practice of deliberately locating incinerators and other types of hazardous waste facilities in or next to minority communities
Ethnic Groups
groups identified chiefly on cultural grounds - language, religion, folk practices, dress, gestures, mannerisms, and so on
the decision making process whereby people are admitted to offices and positions of privilege, prestige, and power within a society
the deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial or ethnic group
Institutional Discrimination
the functioning of the institutions of society in a way that produces unequal outcomes for different groups
Institutional Racism
the functioning of the institutions of society to the disadvantage off racial minority groups
structural assimilation, or the participation of members of different ethnic groups in major institutional structures
Minority Group
a racially or culturally self-conscious population, with hereditary membership and a high degree of in-group marriage, which suffers oppression at the hands of a dominant segment of a nation-state
a situation where diverse groups coexist side by side and mutually accommodate themselves to their differences
attitudes of aversion and hostility toward the members of a group simply because they belong to it and hence are presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to it
a population that differs from other populations in the incidence of various hereditary traits
the belief that some racial groups are naturally superior and others are inferior
Split Labor Market
an economic arena in which large differences exist in the price of labor at the same occupational level
Symbolic Racism
a form of racism in which whites feel that blacks are too aggressive, do not play by the rules, and have negative characteristics
Equalitarian Pluralism
ethnic group members participate freely and equally in political and economic institutions
Inequalitarian Pluralism
economic and political participation of minority groups is severely limited by the dominant group
Functionalist Perspective
ethnic differentiation reduces consensus, increases the chances of conflict, and threatens the equilibrium of a society
Conflict Perspective
prejudice and discrimination can best be understood in terms of tension or conflict among competing groups
Interactionist Perspective
the world we experience is socially constructed, ethnic groups are products of social interaction
the sociocultural distinction between males and females
Gender Identities
the conceptions we have of ourselves as being male or female
Gender Roles
sets of cultural expectations that define the ways in which the members of each sex should behave
a system of social organization in which men have a disproportionate share of power
a reference to whether one is genetically male or female; determines the biological role that one will play in reproduction
the set of cultural and social processes that justify and promote disadvantage for women
Sexual Harassment
unwelcome sexual attention, whether verbal or physical, that affects an employee's job conditions or creates a hostile work environment
Functionalist Perspective - Gender
families are organized along instrumental-expressive lines, with men specializing in instrumental tasks and women in expressive tasks
Conflict Perspective - Gender
a sexual division of labor is a social vehicle devised by men to ensure themselves of privilege, prestige, and power in their relationships with women
Interactionist Perspective - Gender
gender inequality persists because of the way we define men and women and their appropriate roles in society
Feminist Perspective - Gender
women are disadvantaged because society is patriarchal, the assignment of group differences is socially costly and repressive
a pervasive sense of powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, and self-estrangement
a political system in which the government tolerates little or no opposition to its rules but permits nongovernmental centers of influence and allows debate on issues of public policy
legitimate power
Capitalist Economy
an economic system relying primarily on free markets and privately held property
Charismatic Authority
power that is legitimated by the extraordinary superhuman or supernatural qualities people attribute to a leader
Civil Society
a social realm of mediating groups, networks, and institutions that sustains public life outside the worlds of the state and the economy
Core Regions
geographical areas that dominate the world economy and exploit the rest of the system
Corporate Interlocks
networks of individuals who serve on the boards of directors of multiple corporations
a political system in which the powers of government derive from the consent of the governed and in which regular constitutional avenues exist for changing government officials
power whose basis is the threat or application of punishment
those political processes that have to do with the authoritative formulating of rules and policies that are binding and pervasive throughout a society
Interest Groups
organizations of people who share common concerns or points of view
people who share common concerns or points of view
Legal-Rational Authority
power that is legitimated by explicit rules and rational procedures that define the rights and duties of the occupants of given positions
Mass Media
those organizations - newspapers, magazines, television, radio, motion pictures, and the Internet - that undertake to convey information to a large segment of the public
Multinational Corporations
firms that have their central office in one country and subsidiaries in other countries
a market dominated by a few firms
Periphery Regions
geographical areas that provide raw materials to the core and that are exploited by it
Political Actions Committees (PACs)
interest groups set up to elect or defeat candidates, but not through the organization of a political party
Political Party
an organization designed to gain control of the government by putting its people in public office
Political Power
power that is organized and wielded by the state
the processes by which people and groups acquire and exercise power
Public - Interest Groups
interest groups that pursue policies that presumably would be of no greater benefit to their members than to the larger society
Socialist Economy
an economic system relying primarily seek benefits from which their members would derive more gains than the society as a whole
Special - Interest Groups
interest groups that primarily seek benefits from which their members would derive more gains than the society as a whole
an arrangement that consists of people who exercise an effective monopoly in the use of physical coercion within a given territory
a 'total state' in which the government undertakes to control all parts of the society and all aspects of social life
Traditional Authority
power that is legitimated by the sanctity of age-old customs