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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The Nature of Language

Rule Governed

Language is symbolic

Words are arbitrary symbols that have no meaning

Phonological Rules

Rules governing the way in which sounds are pronounced in a language.

Syntactic Rules

Rules that govern the ways symbols can be arranged, as opposed to the meanings of those symbols.

Semantic Rules

Governs meaning of language, as opposed to its structure.

Pragmatic Rules
Rules that govern interpretation of language in terms of its social context.

Ogden and Richards' Triangle of Meaning

Linguistic Relativism

The notion that the language individuals use exerts a strong influence on their perceptions.

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

The best-known declaration of LINGUISTIC RELATIVISM, formulated by Benjamin Whorf and Edward Sapir.

The Impact of Language

Naming and Identity
Sexism and Racism


The process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others with whom one wants to identify.


Speaking in a way that emphasizes difference from others

Powerless speech mannerisms

Forms of speech that communicate to others a lack of power in the speaker: hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, and so on.
Racist language

Language that classifies members of one racial group as superior and others as inferior.

Sexists language

Words, phrases, and expressions that unnecessarily differentiate between females and males or exclude, trivialize, or diminish either sex.
Uses (and Abuses) of Language

Precision and Vagueness
The Language of Responsibility
Disruptive Language

Ambiguous Language
Consists of words and phrases that have more than one commonly accepted definition


Convenient ways of generalizing about similarities between several objects, people, ideas, or events

Abstraction Ladder

A range of more abstract to less abstract terms describing an event or object.

A range of more abstract to less abstract terms describing an event or object.


A pleasant term substituted for a blunt one in order to soften the impact of unpleasant information.

Relative Language

gains meaning by comparison
Static Evaluation
Treating people or objects as if they were unchanging.
The Language of Responsibility

It Statements
But Statements
I You and We

"It" statement

A statement in which "it" replaces the personal pronoun "I," making the statement less direct and more evasive.

"I" language

A statement that describes the speaker's reaction to another person's behavior without making judgments about its worth.

"But" statement

A statement in which the second half cancels the meaning of the first, for example, "I'd like to help you, but I have to go or I'll miss my bus."
"You" language
A statement that expresses or implies a judgment of the other person.


Clearly and directly expressing one's thoughts, feelings, and wants to another person.

"We" language

The use of first-person-plural pronouns to include others, either appropriately or inappropriately. Language implying that the issue being discussed is the concern and responsibility of both the speaker and the receiver of a message.

Factual Statements
Claims that can be verified as true or false
Opinion Statements

Based on the speakers beliefs

Inferential Statement
A statement based on an interpretation of evidence
Evaluative Language

Language that conveys the sender's attitude rather than simply offering an objective description.

Gender and Language

Extent of Gender Differences
Accounting and for Gender Differences

Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication

All behavior has communicative value

Nnvrbl Comm. is primarily relational

Nnvrbl comm. is ambiguous

Nnvrbl comm. is influenced by culture and gender

Nonverbal Communication

messages expressed by nonlinguistic means

Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication

Often unconscious

Usually relational

Inherently ambiguous

Primarily shaped by biology




Deliberate nonverbal behaviors with precise meanings, known to virtually all members of a cultural group.

Or, nonverbal behaviors that are culturally understood substitutes for verbal expressions.

Functions of Nonverbal Communication

Creating and maintaining relationships

Regulating interaction

Influencing others


Managing Identity


cues that help control verbal interaction

Examples of interaction regulators

Vocal intonations, drawls on the last syllable, drop in pitch or loudness when speaking a common expression like "you know."

Eye contact - speaker usually makes less until he is ready for a response which is signaled by a "gaze window"

Examples of behaviors that influence others

Direct eye contact, wear spiffy clothes, use open body postures, touch the listener, be friendly and upbeat.

What are the 3 findings in "Deception Detection 101" by Burgoon and Levine?

We are accurate in detecting deception only slightly more than half the time.

We overestimate our abilities to detect others' lies.

We have a strong tendency to judge others' messages as truthful.

Categories of managing identity nonverbally per Metts and Grohskopf

Manner-how we act

Appearance-how we dress, look, smell

Setting-physical items we're surrounded by

Types of Nonverbal Communication

Body movement

Touch, Voice, Distance



Physical attractiveness


Physical Environment

Examples of body movement

Face and eyes, posture, gestures


the study of body movements


Movements in which one part of the body grooms, massages, rubs, holds, fidgets with, pinches, picks, or otherwise manipulates another part.


the study of touch in human communication


Nonlinguistic means of vocal expression, for example, rate, pitch, and tone.

Or, a term to describe the way a message is spoken.


Nonlinguistic verbalizations, for example, um, er, ah.

Types of pauses in paralinguistic communication

unintentional and vocalized (disfluencies)

Types of Distance

Intimate, Personal, Social, Public


The study of how people use space.

Personal Space

The distance we put between ourselves and others.

Intimate Distance

One of Hall's four distance zones, ranging from skin contact to 18 inches

Personal Distance

One of Hall's four distance zones, ranging from 18 inches to 4 feet

Social Distance

One of Hall's four distance zones, ranging from 4 to 12 feet.

Public Distance

One of Hall's four distance zones, extending outward from 12 feet.


a stationary area claimed by a person or animal


The study of how people use and structure time

Messages clothing conveys

Economic/Education level, trustworthiness, social position, level of sophistication, economic/social/educational background, level of success, moral character