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88 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
An art and a science: Collection, organization, summarization, presentation and to draw Conclusions. 
Statistics 

A branch in correlation and regression analysis that cannot be controlled or manipulated 
Descriptive Statistics 

A branch of statistics that consist of generalizing from sample to populations, performing hypothesis testing, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. 
Inferential Statistics 

A characteristic or attribute that can assume different values 
Variable 

A variable whose values are determined by chance 
Random Variable 

measurements or observations for a variable 
data 

the totality of all subjects possessing certain common characteristics that are being studied 
Population 

a group of subjects selected from the population 
sample 

a characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data values for a specific population 
Parameter 

the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data 
statistic 

a variable that can be placed into distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute. 
Qualitative Variable 

a variable that is numerical in nature and that can be ordered or ranked 
Quantitative Variable 

A variable that assumes values that be counted 
discrete variable 

a variable that can assume all values between any two specific values: a variable obtained by measuring. 
continuous variable 

a measurement level that classifies data into mutually exclusive exhaustive categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on them 
Nominal level of measurement 

a measurement that classifies data into categories that can be ranked: however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist. 
Ordinal level of measurement 

a measurement level that ranks data and in which precise differences between units of measure exist 
Interval level of measurement 

a measurement level that passes all the characteristics of interval measurement and a true zero: it also has true ratios between different unit of measure 
ratio level of measurement 

a sample obtained by numbering each element in the population, and then selecting every K'th number from the population to be included in the sample 
systematic sampling 

a sample obtained by dividing into sub groups called strata, according to various homogenous characteristics and then selecting members from each stratum 
stratified sampling 

a sample obtained by selected a preexisting or natural group called a cluster, and using the members in the cluster for the sample 
cluster sampling 

census 
population count sample every 10 years 

a study in which the researcher merely observes what is happening, or what has happened in the past and draws conclusions based on these observation 
observational studies 

a study in which the researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables 
experimental studies 

A collection of data value forms a 
Data set 

each value in the data set is called a 
data value or datum 

data can be used in these two different ways 
Discriptive and Inferential Statistics 

example of discrpitive statistic is 
cenus 

What type of statistic uses probability? 
Inferential Statistic 

decision making process for evaluating claims about a population based on information obtained from samples. Give an example. 
hypothesis testing, example releasing a new prescription drug 

statisticans use these to determine relationship among variables. give an example. 
inferential statistics example: surgeon general warning of 1964, a car dealer knows what to order on what month and how many of each. 

example: subjects are classified according to gender other example are religious preference and geographical locations 
Qualitative Variable 

for example the variable age is numerical, and people can be ranked in order according to the value of their ages. another example is heights, weights, and body temperatures. 
Quantitative variable 

Quantatative variables can be further classified into two groups 
discrete and continuous variables. 

example of a discete variable 
number of children in the family, and number of students in the class room, and a number of class received by switch board operator for each day of the month. 

an example of continuous variable 
temperature 

measurement scales 
how variable are categorized, counted or measured uses 

the four common types of measurement scales 
nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio


a sample of college instructor classified according to subject taught, english, history,pyschology, or mathematics is an example of and classifying survey subject as male or female. 
nominal level


when people are classified according to their built (small medium large) or first place second place 3rd place at a competition or position at work are all examples of 
ordinal level 

measurments of height weight area and number of phone call received are examples of 
ratio level 

to obtain samples that are unbaised statisticians use four basic methods of sampling called 
random, systematic, stratified, and cluster sampling 

a researcher interviewing subjects entering a local mall to determine what are they buying what store they are going to. this interview accord during a specific time meaning that people who walked in before didnt participate is an example of 
convenience sample


an experimental study is the one that is being manipulated by the researcher; the result in variable is called 
independent variable also called the explanatory variable; dependent variable and outcome variable 

the disadvantage with the experiamental study is called 
hawthorne effect 

a variable that is the one that influences the dependent or outcome variable but what was not seprated from the independent variable is called 
confounding variable 

A survey to collect data on the entire population is 
a census 

in a questionary, respondents are asked to mark their gender as male or female , gender is an example of the 
nominal level of measurement 

the nominal scale of measurement has the properties of A)Ordinal Scale B)only interval scale C)ratio scale D) none of these alternatives are correct 
D 

the scale of measurement that is used to rank order , the observation for the variable is called the 
Ordinal Scale 

rating of excellent, great, poor , very poor is an example of what scale 
ordinal scale 

the ordinal scale of measurement has the properties of the 
nominal scale 

the ratio scale of measurement has the properties of the 
interval scale 

temparature is an example of a variable that uses the 
interval scale 

the interval scale of measurement has the properties of A) ratio and nominal scale B)ratio and ordinal scale C) ratio scale D) none of these alternatives are correct 
D 

Income is an example of a variable that uses the 
ratio scale 

arithmetic operations are appropriate for A)only the ratio scale B)only the interval scale C) nominal scale D) none of these 
D 

quantitative data refers to data obtained with the 
interval or ratio scales 

the entities on which data are collected are 
elements 

the set of measurements collected for a particular element are called 
observations 

a characteristic of interest for the element is called a 
variable 

all the data collected in a particular study are refered to as the 
data set 

another name for observations 
cases 

quantitative data are 
always numeric 

The number of cases will always be the same as the number of 
elements 

qualitative data can be 
maybe either numeric or non numeric 

ordinary arithmetic operations are meaningful 
quantitative 

temperature is an example of a 
quantitative variable 

For ease of data entry into a university database, 1 denotes that the student is a undergraduate and 2 indicated that the student is a graduate student... in this case data are 
Qualitative varibale 

arithmetic operations are inappropriate for 
qualitative data 

income is an example of 
quantitative data 

data collected at the same or approximately the same point in time are 
cross sectional data 

data collected over several time periods are called 
time series data 

statistical studies in which researchers do not control variable of interest 
observational studies 

statistical studies in which researchers control variables of interest 
experimental studies 

the summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical are refered to as 
descriptive statistics 

the process of drawing inferences about the population based on the information taken from the sample 
statistical inference 

the collection of all elements of interest in a particular study 
population 

in a sample of 800 students in a university , 240 or 30%, are business majors .... the 30% is an example of 
descriptive statistics 

in a sample of 400 students in a university , 80 or 20% are business majors... based on the above information, the schools paper reported that 20% of all the students at the university are business majors. this report is an example of 
Statistical inference 

500 residents of a city are pulled to obtain information on voting intentions in a upcoming city election. the 500 residents are an example of a 
sample 

a statistics professor asks students in call their age .. on the basis of this information the professor states that the average age of students in the university is 24 years ... this is an example of 
statistical inference 

the owner of a factory regularly requests a graphical summary of all employee salaries .. the graphical summary of salaries is an example of 
descriptive statistic 

the department of transportation of a city has noted that on the average there are 17 accidents per day , the average number of accidents is an example of 
descriptive statistic 

the process of analyzing sample data in order to draw conclusions about the characteristics of a population is called 
statistical inference 

in a post office the mail boxes are numbered from 14500 these numbers represent 
qualitative 

the average age in a sample of 190 students at city college is 22 .. as a result of the sample it can be concluded that the average age of all students at city college ... 
could be larger smaller or equal to 22 

since the sample is the sub set of the population .. the sample mean ... 
could be larger smaller or equal to the population 