Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

241 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

which term literally means without feeling and is defined as a loss of sensation


which state of anesthesia is defined as a reversible state of unconsciousness, immobility, muscle relaxation, and loss of sensation throughout the entire body produced by administration of one or more anesthetic agents

general anesthesia

a stage of anesthesia that has a sufficient loss of sensitivity to pain and muscle relaxation to allow for the performance of surgery without the pain or movement is

surgical anesthesia

a state in which a patient is aware or unaware of the surroundings but can be easily aroused by a noxious stimulate is referred to as


which of the following is drug induced sleep from which it can be very difficult to rouse the patient


the application of an anesthetic directly to the body surface to create a localized loss of sensation is referred to as

topical anesthesia

the use of premedication such as acepromazine along with anesthesia induction with propofol, maintenance of isoflurane and bupivacaine placed near the sensory nerves would be an example of

balanced anesthesia

which of the following is not a role of the credentialed veterinary technical in regard to the practice of anesthesia`

deciding which drugs will be used for the anesthesia event

the term hypnosis refers to

a drug induced sleeplike state that impairs the ability of the patient to respond appropriately to stimuli

a complete signalment includes

species, breed, age, sex and reproductive status

which of the following breeds of dog is more difficult to intubate and demands close supervision to ensure a patent airway before, during and after any anesthetic procedure

english bulldog

neonates or pediatric patients require special consideration when deciding what drugs to use becasue

the liver metabolic pathways are not fully developed

which finding on a physical examination indicates decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and a predisposition to hypoxemia


how should anesthetics be dosed in obese patients

at the lean body weight of the animal

an elevation in which of the following laboratory blood tests would alert the anesthetist to the possibility of a dehydrated patient and a concern for decreased blood volume, which could adversely affect cardiac output, blood pressure, and tissue perfusion

packed cell volume

in addition to delivering inhalation to a surgical patient, which of the following is the other purpose of an anesthesia machine

remove respiratory waste products

which of the following valves is most likely to allow room air to enter an anesthesia machine

adjustable pressure relief valve

negative pressure relief valve

compressed gas cylinders should always be stored in which position

vertical and chained/belted

in order to effectively absorb anesthetic vapors, activated charcoal cartridges should be replaced after

12 hours of use or weight gain of 50 grams

which of the following scenarios would lead to the highest level of waste gas contamination

a bottle of isoflurane is dropped and broken while refilling the vaporizer

y breathing host

delivers anesthesia to the patient and removes CO2 from the patient

carbon dioxide absorber canister

removes CO2 from oxygen and anesthetic gas so the gas and oxygen can be reused

reservoir bag

monitor patients respiratory

can manually breathe for the patient

scavenger system

collects the anesthetic gas and prevents it from entering the room


converts liquid gas to vapor gas and connects gas with oxygen

oxygen flow meter

measured oxygen rate the patient is receiving in L/min

gas tank

holds combustible gas

usually oxygen

common problems that can result in waste gas leakage

hole in the breathing host or reservoir bag

connections arent air tight

ET tube isnt placed correctly

name some risks and challenges the vet tech will face an an anesthetist

changes in cardiovascular and pulmonary system

monitoring the patient for sudden drops or movements

gas leakage

monitor vital signs constantly

t/f halothane is believed to be the least toxic inhalation agent


t/f the term WAG is referred to as waste anesthetic gas


t/f the primary function of a scavenging system is to collect waste gas from the machine in order for exact analysis


t/f the anesthetist must approach any anesthetic procedure with a genuine willingness to take personal responsibility for the well being of the patient


t/f it is not necessary to constantly monitor vital signs in anesthetic patients


t/f low pressure leak checks should be performed only when a leakage is suspected


immediately after completing the hand scrub, which of the following is the most appropriate step for the vet tech to take

dry the hands with a sterile towel

a 5 year old toy fox terrier is about to undergo catheterization for IV treatment. which of the following gloving methods is appropriate for the vet tech to use


toward the end of surgery on a 2 year old cat, the tech's right glove is inadvertently contaminated. the tech steps away from the sterile field and the circulating nurse properly takes off the tech's glove. so the tech can finish the surgery, which of the following regloving methods is most appropriate to use


use of which of the following is most likely to reduce the chance of hypothermia in a cat during surgery

hard heated pad

a 7 year old male siamese cat is to undergo surgery to repair a forelimb fracture sustained when he was hit by a bike. the vet expects to drill into the animal's bone. which of the following is most appropriate for the tech to use to keep the bone fragments out of the surgical site

suction machine

which of the following parts of a ring handled surgical instrument is most likely to lock the instrument closed during a surgical procedure


during surgery on a cat, the vet needs to cut a sponge to fit a particular wound size. which of the following surgical scissors is most appropriate to hand her


during surgery on a 3 month old puppy the vet needs to cut a ligament. which of the following surgical scissors is most appropriate to hand him

metzenbaum dissecting

the vet needs to clamp a large mass on the flank of a thoroughbred horse. which of the following forceps is most appropriate to use

rochester carmalt hemostatic

the vet needs to clamp a small vessel in a cairn terrier dog. which of the following forceps is most appropriate to use

crile hemostatic

a 3 year old female boxer is undergoing surgery to repair a hindlimb cut she sustained when running through thick underbush. the surgeon wants to use one instrument to hold a suture and then cut it. what is the most appropriate needle holder to use

olsen hegar

which of the following scalpel blades is most likely to fit onto a no. 3 scalpel handle


which of the following surgical instruments is most appropriate to hand the surgeon when she wants to grasp and retract a patient's tissue on a short term basis

thumb tissue forceps

a 9 year old female american shorthaired cat is undergoing delicate vascular surgery. which of the following forceps are most appropriate to use

DeBakey thoracic thumb tissue

a 4 year old male great dane dog is undergoing abdominal surgery. the surgeon wants to deflect tissue and other structures away from the surgical site for complete visualization. whats the best instrument to use

balfour retractor

a 3 year old male domestic shorthaired cat is undergoing surgery. the surgeon wants to use a penetrating but lightweight towel clamp. which one


a 6 month old female labrador retriever is undergoing ovariohysterectomy. the surgeon is about to exteriorize the uterine horns. which instrument do you use

snook spay hook

during ultrasonography of a 12 year old male giant schnauzer's thoracic region, a large mass is detected on tissue, and the surgeon orders cytology of a sample of the mass. to gather the sample to send to the lab which of the following is most appropriate to use

punch biopsy instrument

a 3 year old male quarterhorse is undergoing a bone graft. which of the following instruments is most appropriate to use to break up pieces of bone in this horse

bone rongeur

the vet tech is looking over the surgery schedule for tomorrow and sees 3 ophthalmic surgeries are scheduled. the tech knows that one instrument will not be needed tomorrow. which one do you leave out of the surgery room

intermedullary pin

a new vet tech is preparing to start her job tomorrow. which of the following are the most appropriate nail care practices she should begin tonight

clip nails shorter than her fingertips and remove nail polish

a 4 year old bichon frise dog that underwent surgery yesterday is showing signs of acute infection this morning. the vet determines it was endogenous contamination during surgery. what is most likely the cause of this dog's signs

underlying asymptomatic infection

a vet tech is about to step out of the surgery room for a minute. which of the following is the most appropriate action he should take before leaving the room

put a clean laboratory coat over his scrubs

which of the following needles are used most likely in bovine surgical closures

double curved

which of the following needle points is most likely to penetrate tissue without leaving small cuts and thus is most appropriate to use for cutting tough fibrous tissue


which of the following multifilament suture materials cant be absorbed by the body and thus must be manually removed after healing


which of the following is the largest suture size

No. 4

the vet tech is looking at the list of surgeries to be performed tomorrow. in what order should the surgeries be performed

hip replacement on an 11 year old bullmastiff dog

repair of a severed achilles tendon in a 2 year old male pit bull

repair of a femoral fracture in a 5 year old airedale terrier

debridement of an old wound in an 8 year old DLH cat

repair of an impacted anal sac of a 3 year old female manx cat

proper scrub attire is meant to reduce the chance that microbes will be released into the surgery area. these microbes are msot likely present where on the human body

sebaceous and sweat glands around hair follicles

a surgical mask should cover which of the following areas of the face

the nose and mouth

during a surgical procedure, a vet tech feels she is about to sneeze. which of the following is the most appropriate action for her to take

dont turn her head

step back from the sterile field

which of the following is the minimum amount of time that presurgical mechanical scrubbing should take to be done correctly

5 minutes

a vet tech is setting up protocols for a new clinic's scrub and surgery rooms. which of the following notices should be posted elsewhere in the clinic

fair employment notice

when selecting an antimicrobial detergent, the vet tech should look for one that offers broad spectrum activity, is non irritating, offers persistent effects and cumulative activity, and is fast acting and effective. which of the following is the 5th most appropriate characteristic the tech should look for

FDA compliant

which of the following antimicrobial skin cleansing agents does not have residual activity


which of the following antimicrobial skin-cleansing agents has residual effect that can last longer than 6 days

chlorhexidine gluconate

which of the following is the first step the vet tech should take immediately before beginning the surgical scrub process

wash the hands and forearms with an antimicrobial agent

which of the following is the most appropriate chronologic order for a surgical hand rub

fingers, hands, forearms, elbows



box lock



ring handle

it is most appropriate for the vet tech to delay extubation after surgery on which of the following animals until the animal can lift the head by himself

pekingese dog

the postanesthesia patient is most likely to be considered recovered when which of the following occurs

the animals physiologic parameters return to normal

a 7 year old cat is in the recovery cage after surgery and is thrashing about, crying out and paddling all four limbs. which is most likely explanation of this

emergence delirium

which of the following animals should be given reduced concentrations of anesthetic agents during surgery


sight hounds

those with kidney disease

those with liver disease

those with head trauma

those with seizure disorders

in the recovery cage, a 3 year old female skye terrier dog is bleeding from her surgical site. the surgeon is concerned about internal bleeding. in addition to pale mucous membranes, welling at the surgical site and rapid respirations, what is another sign that the dog has internal hemorrhage

abdominal bloating


slowed capillary refill time

a 10 month old DSH cat has a lump at its wound site 24 hours after surgery. aspirate from the mass is straw colored. what is the most likely cause of this mass

overactive postoperatively


a few days after surgery, fibroblasts and granular tissue invade a wound site. at which of the following wound healing stages is this animal most likely to be


a man brings to the clinic a dog he found by the side of the road. the dog is malnourished, markedly dehydrated, and frightened. examination shows and active infection with purulent exudate in a laceration on the dogs right flank. the wound has started to heal over, and the vet thinks the animal sustained the wound 2 days ago. what is the wound classification


a surgical wound is most likely to be classified as


a race track vet is in the paddock when a horse gores itself on a pitch fork mistakenly left in its stall. the vet immediately examines the wound. what is the wound classification


which of the following is the most appropriate treatment for a cat that is apparently experiencing a breakthrough pain after surgery


a client brings his 4 year old mixed breed dog to the clinic because he says the dog is in chronic pain after falling from the clients backyard deck 1 month ago. the client appears disheveled and cannot answer specific questions about the dogs condition. the PE of the dog shows no abnormalities. BCS is appropriate and the animal seems bright and alert. the client insists that the vet office prescribe pain pills that the client will give at home. what should the vet team do

do not write the prescription

halsted mosquito forceps

crile forceps

kelly forceps

rochester carmalt forceps

rochester pean forceps

rochester ochsner forceps

ferguson angiotribe forceps

rat tooth tissue forceps

adson tissue forceps

brown adson tissue forceps

dressing forceps

allis tissue forceps

babcock intestinal forceps

forester sponge holding forceps

backhaus towel forceps

jones towel forceps

mayo-hegar needle holder

olson-hegar needle holder-scissors combination

metzenbaum scissors

thin, delicate
thin, delicate

mayo scissors


operating scissors

wire scissors

straight spencer delicate stitch scissors

straight littauer stitch scissors

lister bandage scissors

knowles bandage scissors

senn rake retractor

balfour retractor

during surgery on a 3 year old poodle, the tech anesthetist is monitoring the patient under anesthesia. how frequently is it most appropriate for the anesthetist to check the patient and where should results be recorded

every 5 minuets on teh anesthesia form

for which of the following patterns of scrubbing is it most appropriate to place a purse string suture in the anus before the preparation is begun


several patient parameters should be monitored during surgery, including respiratory rate and rhythm, color of mucous membranes, temp, muscle tone and reflexes, heart rate and rhythm and eye position. what is also important to monitor

capillary refill time

when is the best time to clip a patient

immediately after the patient has been stabilized under anesthesia

a 10 year old female wire fox terrier dog has been anesthetized. she is panting, and her respiratory rate is 25 beats/min. she responds to the surgeons touch by struggling, but she appears disoriented. her eye position is central. her pupils are normal and respond to light. her muscle tone and reflexes appear normal. what stage of anesthesia is she in

stage 1

which of the following are the acceptable lower and upper limits on heart beats per minute for an anesthetized dachshund


which of the following techniques is most appropriate to use to confirm proper placement of an endotracheal tube

blowing of gauze or hair

air movement

patient cough

fogging in teh tube

the CRT of an anesthetized 11 year old ragdoll cat is 4 seconds. besides reduced arterial blood pressure what is most likely additional cause of prolonged CRT

peripheral vasoconstriction

the proper endotracheal tube size to use is a decision based on

the patients weight

when leak checking an endotracheal tube before surgery, the tech submerges the tube in a pan of clean water. the absence of what in the water denotes that the tube has no leak


a vet should be notified immediately if the mean arterial pressure/map of an anesthetized animal reaches which threshold

60 mmHg

during surgery on a 9 month old male beagle the tech notices pale mucous membranes. poor tissue perfusion and shock are rule out. the vet asks the circulating nurse to check the patients medical record to see if what was done before surgery

complete blood count

the respiratory rate of an anesthetized 3 year old cat is 5 breaths/min. this is most likely a sign of

excessive anesthetic depth

as anesthetic depth increases, which of the following best describes what happens to the respiratory rate


it is most appropriate to manually ventilate a patient how frequently

every 5 to 10 minutes

during surgery on a cat, the tech manually ventilates the patient and immediately smells a pungent gas odor. this means

the endotracheal tube has become dislodged

flaccid jaw muscle tone in an anesthetized animal is most likely to signify

heavily anesthetized

during surgery a tech is using a pulse oximeter to monitor a patient. in addition to monitoring the pulse rate what else does the machine do

measures percentage of available hemoglobin saturated with oxygen

which of the following is the normal range of systolic blood pressure in an anesthetized dog or cat

90-160 mm Hg

which of the following machines is most helpful when the tech wants to evaluate an anesthetized patients respiratory rate and the quality of its respirations


during surgery an anesthetized 4 year old mixed breed dog has an expired CO2 level of 55 mm Hg. the capnometer is checked and is in good working order. what is most likely to correct the hypercarbia

increase ventilation

direct blood pressure monitoring is best performed by placing a catheter into which of the following


which of the following is least useful for detecting the proper placement of an endotracheal tube

feeling air come out of the tube when pressing on the chest

nonrebreathng systems are generally recommended for patients that weigh

less than 7 kg

the patient is in respiratory arrest. which of the following is the correct action and reason

turn off the vaporizer, because chances are the patient is too deep, and you need to begin ventilating breaths with oxygen alone

over inflation of the lungs during artificial ventilation

may cause emphysema


prolongs anesthetic recovery

the patient is in an excessively deep plane of anesthesia. which answer would not be an explanation

the endotracheal tube is kinked

puppies and kittens delivered by cesarean section that have reduced respiratory function can be given this drug underneath their tongue to stimulate respiration


immediately after tracheal intubation in a 3 kg cat you notice extreme respiratory distress. the most likely cause is

bronchial intubation

the patient is dyspneic. you should do all of the following except

disconnect the pet from the anesthesia machine

some anesthetists routinely bag the patient under inhalation anesthesia once every 5 minutes to help prevent


when inflating the cuff on an endotracheal tube, you should change to a larger diameter tube if cuff inflation requires injection of more than what volume of air

5 ml

once extubated, all animals should be placed in

sternal recumbency with the neck extended

a 10 year old dog has been anesthetized for removal of a skin tumor and is now maintained on 2% isoflurane. the anesthetist observes that its respirations are 8/min and shallow, its heart rate is 80 beat/min, its pupils are centrally positioned, its jaw tone is slack, and all of its reflexes are absent. what should be your response or actions to the condition of this animal

you should reduce the vaporizer setting to 1.5% isoflurane and continue to monitor for signs of decreased depth

if the rebreathing bag is empty during anesthesia, all of the following may be the cause except

the oxygen flow may be too high

in nonbrachycephalic breeds of dogs recovering from anesthesia, the endotracheal tube should be removed when the

swallowing reflex returns

following discontinuation of the anesthetic gas, periodic bagging of the patient with pure oxygen is advisable because it

help reinflate collapsed alveoli

hypoventilation that occurs in the anesthetized patient is characterized by

decreased oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levels

after placing, lubricating, and inflating the cuff of the endotracheal tube, you note a sudden decrease in heart rate. the most likely causes is

cuff may be overinflated, producing vagal-induced bradycardia

the best method for determining the proper inflation of an endotracheal tube cuff is

inject air while applying pressure from the reservoir bag until no air escapes around the tube

the volume of the rebreathing bag on an anesthetic machine should be at least

3 times the patient's tidal volume

propofol is a

nonbarbiturate, intravenous anesthetic with hypotensive potential

when inflating lungs with the thoracic cavity open to the atmosphere, be sure that the pressure reached on the manometer is

20 cm H2O

which of the following is the most common complication of endotracheal intubation

]placement of the tube in the esophagus

it is advisable to turn the anesthetized patient from side to side during the recovery period of anesthesia. concerning this, which statement is least accurate

it is advisable to turn all animals dorsally rather than sternally to prevent gastric torsion

a capillary refill time that is over 2 seconds indicates

decreased peripheral blood perfusion

a 6 year old irish setter is brought to the hospital after being struck by a vehicle. radiographs showed a fractured left tibia. which is the first step in treatment

administer analgesics

A woman brings to a veterinary clinic a mixed-breed Terrier dog that she found lying by the side of the road. Physical examination shows a fracture of the right radius. Diagnostic studies show the radius is broken in three places, but the surgeon believes the bone pieces can be aligned with fixation. Which of the following types of bone fracture is this?

comminuted reducible

During abdominal exploratory surgery on a mixed-breed dog, it is most appropriate for the technician to ensure the animal’s exposed organs are kept moist and covered with which of the following?

laparotomy sponges

Which of the following surgical instruments is most appropriate to have ready for upcoming exploratory abdominal surgery on a Bernese Mountain dog?

balfour retractor

Diagnostic studies show a rubber ball in the stomach of an 8-month-old Labrador Retriever dog. Surgery is necessary to remove it. The veterinary technician need not prepare which of the following instruments for this emergency surgery?

beaver blade handle

A woman brings to a veterinary clinic a mixed-breed Terrier dog that she found lying by the side of the road. Physical examination shows a fracture of the right radius with a small puncture hole in the skin around the fracture site. The bone is not exposed. Which of the following types of fracture is this?

grade 1 open

An 8-month-old Labrador Retriever dog is brought for evaluation because of a 1-day history of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia. Palpation of the abdomen elicits pain. The animal seems depressed. Which of the following is the most appropriate diagnostic test to administer to this dog?


A 6-year-old male Black and Tan Coonhound dog is brought for evaluation because of a 1-day history of marked lameness of the right hindlimb. The dog is carrying the limb in flexion; only the toes touch the ground. Palpation of the limb elicits pain and shows joint effusion around the stifle joint. Displacement of the tibia is noted. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

cranial cruciate ligament injury

A rubber ball has been surgically removed from the stomach of an 8-month-old Labrador Retriever dog. In the recovery cage after the gastrotomy, the dog continues to vomit intermittently for the next 3 hours. Which of the following is the most appropriate action?

continue IV fluids and withhold food and water

A 6-year-old male Black and Tan Coonhound dog is brought for evaluation of marked lameness of the right hindlimb after he trapped the limb in a fence yesterday, and the owner had to pry him out. The dog is carrying the limb in flexion; only the toes touch the ground. Palpation of the limb elicits pain and shows joint effusion around the stifle joint. Which of the following additional diagnostic tests are most appropriate?

tibial compression and cranial drawer test

A 3-year-old female Border Collie dog is about to undergo surgery for cranial cruciate ligament repair. How is it most appropriate to position the dog’s limb during the presurgical scrub?

suspended above the table

During anastomosis on a cat, the surgeon is most likely to ask the veterinary technician to do which of the following just before suturing begins?

hold the 2 segments of intestine in alignment

A 10-year-old female Weimaraner dog is diagnosed with neoplasia of the intestinal tract. Surgical exploration shows necrosis in a section of the bowel. For which of the following surgical procedures is the surgeon most likely to tell the technician to prepare the animal?

intestinal resection and anastomosis

After gastric surgery on a dog and before closure of the abdomen, which of the following is most appropriate for the scrub team to do?

do a sponge count

change instrument packs

change gloves

do an instrument count

A 13-year-old Greater Swiss Mountain dog is recovering in the clinic from gastropexy to treat volvulus. It is most appropriate to check the dog for which of the following conditions for 2 to 3 days after surgery?

cardiac arrhythmia

most anesthetic deaths are due to complications involving

the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

when is the largest portion of anesthetic related deaths likely to occur

post anesthetic period

of the following, which is least likely to contribute to anesthetic problems and emergencies

human error

failure to prevent a patient from inhaling excessive levels of CO2 is likely to result in


patient groups that are predisposed to increased risk for anesthetic complication include all of the following




in general those patients under what age are considered to be at increased risk when anesthetized

3 months

which of the following is unlikely to occur even after a short period of fasting in pediatric patients


a geriatric patient is defined as one that has reached what percentage of their life expectancy


in patients that have concurrent respiratory disease and are undergoing anesthesia, which drug should be avoided

nitrous oxide

patients with liver disease that have also been diagnosed with hyproproteinemia can experience increased potency with which type of anesthetic agent


due to the ability to cross the placental barrier, which of the following drugs is not advised for use during caesarean sections


which of the following is commonly compromised due to the distended uterus of parturient patients

tidal volume

when assessing ventilation in patients suffering fro conditions such as diaphragmatic hernias, monitoring all of the following is helpful

pulse oximetry


arterial blood gas

which of the following parameters should be carefully monitored in seizure patients in relation to muscle activity

body temperature

during cardiac arrest, the use of vasopressor drugs could include the administration of all of the following




during CPR which of the following ETCO2 levels in indicative of adequate perfusion

15 mm Hg

while monitoring an anesthetized patient, intermittent, abrupt gasps are noted. this breathing pattern should be recognized as

atonal breaths

a thoracentesis may be indicated to remove all of the following



pleural effusion

due to the inherent differences in anesthetizing pediatric patients, which of the following is the most appropriate strategy to institute to decrease anesthetic risk

choose inhalant over injectable anesthetics

the discerning factor to differentiate between vomiting and regurgitation in a patient is

lack of retching or other outward signs

ovariohysterectomy procedure

special instrument-spay hook used to exteriorize the uterine horn

positioning- dorsal recumbency, ventral midline incision, xiphoid to the pubis shaved

abdominal incision through the subcutaneous tissue and linea alba

three clamp technique of uterine horn

double ligation of uterine body

primary indications for OHE/ovariohysterectomy

neoplasia, trauma to reproductive tract, dystocia, uterine torsion, abolition of heat cycle, stabilization of other systemic disease

removal of ovary and uterus

post op OHE


renal dysfunction secondary to ureteral

indications of c section

maldeveloped fetuses

oversized fetuses

malposition fetuses

small pelvic canal of dam

previous pelvic trauma of dam

insufficient dilation

uterine uinertia

cesarean section procedure

delivery of fetuses by incision through abdominal wall and uterus

instruments-soft tissue surgery pack, extra hemostasis and hands

dorsal recumbency, empty bladder

c-section without ovariohysterectomy

uterine horns exteriorized

uterus isolated with moistened laprarotomy sponges

squeeze each fetus cranially toward the incision

have hemostats ready

c-section with ovariohysterectomy

en-bloc resection

abdominal wall closure

may finish with a subticular layer or intradermal layer to avoid irritation from neonates if skin sutures are used

care of neonates

inside the uterus- incise the uterus and dislodge them

break amniotic sac

have area prepared for neonates with warm towels, heat, medications, suture, scissors, suction bulb

naloxone/doxaprim- stimulate breathing if mother was given opiods

after stabilized, ligate and transect umbilical cord


pus filled uterus

instruments= routine spay pack, laparotomy sponges, heated lavage and suction

dorsal recumbency

routine ovariohysterectomy/OHE

remove uterus

postoperative considerations for pyometra

IV antibiotics-stable animals

oral antibiotics for 7-10 days post op

canine castration

surgical removal of testicles

instrument=general soft tissue surgical pack

dorsal recumbency

palpate both testicles present

surgical site is from tip of prepuce to above the scrotum

open-tunics are incised, cord contents ligated and transected separately

closed- spermatic cord encased in its parietal vaginal tunic is ligated and transected

indication of neuter/orhiectomy

sterilization of the dog

prevention of roaming, aggressive behavior, urine marking, congenital abnormalities

treatment of scrotal/testicular neoplasia, abscess or infection, disease related to hormones


one testicle has not descended and is somewhere in the abdomen

feline castration

instruments- hemostat, blade, metal clips

position lateral or dorsal

dont suture testicles

post op for castration

scrotal bleeding

cold compress


loss of sensation to the entire or any part of the body

progressive reversible intoxication of the CNS


central nervous system depression and drowsiness


state of calm in which the patient is reluctant to move and is away of but unconcerned about its surroundings


a sleeplike state, patient can be aroused with sufficient stimulation


painful or physical harmful


a drug induced sleep from the patient and is not easily aroused


absence of pain


sensitivity to pain

balanced anesthesia

administration of multiple drugs in smaller quantities

general anesthesia

drug induced unconsciousness

delivery in a controlled manner

reversible depression of CNS

sensory, motor and autonomic reflex functions are depressed attenuated

stage 1 anesthesia

disoriented, struggling, fear

RR increased, HR increased

stage 2 anesthesia

excitement stage, reflex struggling, vocalization, padding, chewing

RR irregular, hyperventilate or hold breath

HR high normal and strong pulse

stage 3 anesthesia

plane 1-light anesthesia-unconscious-possible movement in response to surgical stimulation, RR regular, HR high normal

plane 2-medium surgical-unconscious, immobile. RR regular and shallow, mild decrease. HR normal or decrease, pulse strength decreased

plane 3-deep anesthesia-unconscious, immobile, RR shallow, abdominal breathing, HR low, pale MM, CRT high, pulse weak

stage 4 anesthesia

unconscious, immobile


cardiovascular collapse

arterial oxygen saturation


end tidal carbon dioxide level/ETco2


systolic blood pressure


diastolic blood pressure


mean arterial pressure awake


mean arterial pressure under anesthesia


selecting endotracheal tube

a dog weighing 20 kg will require a 9.5-10mm tube

+/- 1mm for each 5kg of weight under/over 20kg

cat endotracheal sizes

5kg- 4.5-5mm tube

dog endotracheal sizes

2kg- 5mm tube

10kg- 7.5-8mm tube

20kg- 9.5-10mm t

40kg- 12-14mm tube

HR during anesthesia for dogs


RR during anesthesia for dogs


temp during anesthesia for dogs


cat HR under anesthesia


cat RR under anesthesia


cat temp under anesthesia



swallowing, palpebral reflex, pedal reflex, corneal reflex, pupillary light reflex, spontaneous movement, muscle tone, eyeball position, pupil size, heart rate, respiratory rat, salivation, lacrimation, response to surgical stimulation