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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

the body of the pancreas lies anterior to the _____, _____ ______ artery, and _____ _____ vein

aorta


superior mesenteric


left renal

the tail of the pancreas is bordered posteriorly by the _______ vein, anteriorly by the ________, and laterally by the left ________.

splenic


stomach


kidney

the main pancreatic duct is also called the _____ of ______. enzymes secreted by the pancreas are transported through this duct, which joins with the distal ______ _____ _____ to empty into the _____.

duct of wirsung


common bile duct


duodenum



the islets of _____ are part of the _____ system, which releases hormones directly into the bloodstream

langerhans


endocrine

insulin is released by a ______ feedback mechanism, meaning that as blood glucose levels _____ above a certain level, insulin is secreted by the beta cells and as blood glucose levels ____, insulin secretion is decreased

negative


rise


falls

an imbalance between insulin secretion and the metabolic needs of the human body will result in _______

diabetes

the pancreas secretes enzymes which are essential to digestion and the absorption of vital nutrients. these enzymes include, amylase, which breaks down _____, _______, which breaks down fats; and trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen which breaks down _____ into amino acids

carbohydrates


lipase


proteins

in children the normal pancreas is more _____ than the adult pancreas because children tend to have less pancreatic fat than adults.

hypoechoic

in most sonographic examinations the ____ and ____ of the pancreas can be adequately visualized; however, the pancreatic _____ is more difficult to visualize

head


body


tail

water can be given to increase visualization of the pancreas during the sonographic exam. if water is given to the patient, the patient should be examined in the _____ position so that air in the stomach will rise above it

upright

clinically, a patient with acute pancreatitis will present with ______pain, radiating to the _____. this pain is characteristically relieved when the patient __________________.

epigastric


back


sits up or bends at the waist

in patients with acute pancreatitis, serum ______ increases quickly and returns to normal within 3 to 10 days after an onset of systems. where as serum _____ remains elevated longer

amylase


lipase

in acute pancreatitis the echotexture of the pancreas is ________ due to edema and the borders of the gland may appear ______ . The _____ _______ may dilate due to obstruction

hypoechoic


irregular


pancreatic duct

pancreatic ________ a common complication of actue pancreatitis are encapsulated collections of the by products of the tissue destruction that occurs in severe disease

pseudocyst

_______ ________ is the result of repeated attacks of acute pancreatitis and leads to fibrosis, destruction, and atrophy of functioning pancreatic disease

chronic pancreatiitis

pancreatic cancer is the _____ leading cause of cancer related deaths in the US. because early detection is ______.

5th


uncommon

adenocarcinoma of the pancreas arises from the ____ tissues, where as islet cell tumors are _______ in origin

exocrine


endocrine

islet cell tumors typically occur in the ____ or _____ of the pancreas and are often _____ in size

body


tail


small



________ adenomas are benign cystic lesions that occur most frequently in the pancreatic head and contain multiple cysts of varying sizes, where as _____ _________ adenomas are malignant lesions composed of larger cystic areas.

microcystic


malignant mucinous

_______ disease is an autosomal dominant disease that is characterized by multiple small cysts in the liver, kidneys and pancreas

polycystic