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70 Cards in this Set

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Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?


A. proximal convoluted tubule


B. distal convoluted tubule


C. glomerulus


D. collecting duct

proximal convoluted tubule (A)

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?


A. a system for concentrating urine


B. a system that protects the nephron from some chemicals found in blood


C. a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure


D. a system for diluting urine

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure (C)

Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?


A. water and small solutes


B. nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea


C. ions, such as sodium and potassium


D. blood cells and large particles

blood cells and large particles (D)

What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?


A. gravity


B. hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)


C. colloid osmotic pressure of blood

hydrostatic pressure of blood (B)

Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?


A. glucose


B. creatinine


C. protein


D. chloride

protein (C)

If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?


A. net filtration would decrease


B. net filtration would not be altered


C. net filtration would increase

net filtration would decrease (A)

Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.


A. 25 mm Hg


B. 60 mm Hg


C. 50 mm Hg


D. 35 mm Hg

25 mm Hg (A)

Which of the following best describes glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?


A. the volume of filtrate created at the glomerulus per liter of blood flowing through the glomerular capillaries


B. the volume of urine leaving the kidneys per minute


C. the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute


D. the volume of blood flowing through the glomerular capillaries per minute

the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute (C)

GFR regulation mechanisms primarily affect which of the following?


A. blood osmotic pressure (OPg)


B. capsular osmotic pressure (OPc)


C. capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc)


D. glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (D)

Which of the following are mechanisms of intrinsic control of glomerular filtration (renal auto regulation)?


A. myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback


B. myogenic mechanism and sympathetic nervous system control


C. tubuloglomerular feedback and the renin-angiotensin mechanism


D. sympathetic nervous system control and the renin-angiotensin mechanism



myogenic mechanism and tubloglomerular feedback (A)

Macula dense cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) regulate GFR through which intrinsic mechanism?


A. tubuloglomerular feedback


B. myogenic mechanism


C. renin-angiotensin mechanism


D. sympathetic nervous system control

tubuloglomerular feedback (A)

The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulartion primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?


A. glomeruli


B. efferent arterioles


C. systemic arterioles


D. afferent arterioles

afferent arterioles (D)

What does a high concentration of NaCl in the renal tubule at the juxtaglomerular apparatus most likely indicate?


A. excessive NaCl reabsorption due to low GFR


B. insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to low GFR


C. excessive NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR


D. insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR

insufficient NaCl reabsorption due to high GFR (D)

Through the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, how would an increase in filtrate NaCl concentration affect afferent arteriole diameter?


A. Afferent arteriole diameter would stay about the same


B. Afferent arteriole diameter would increase


C. Afferent arteriole diameter would decrease

afferent arteriole diameter would decrease (C)

Granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus regulate GFR indirectly though which mechanism?


A. tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism


B. renin-angiotensin mechanism


C. myogenic mechanism


D. sympathetic nervous system controls

renin-angiotensin mechanism (B)

Which hormone(s) is/are required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?


A. renin


B. ADH


C. both ADH and aldosterone


D. aldosterone

ADH (B)

Since most patients with renal failure produce little or no urine, hemodialysis often involves removal of water from the blood. However, side-effects may develop if too much fluid is removed from the blood. Which of the following is NOT one of the potential side-effects?


A. dizziness


B. vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles


C. low blood pressure


D. muscle fatigue

vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles (B)

What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?


A. glomerulus and renal tubule


B. proximal convoluted tubule and nephron loop


C. glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule


D. renal tubule and collecting duct

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule (C)

In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?


A. renal pelvis


B. renal cortex


C. renal columns


D. renal medulla

renal cortex (B)

Which capillary bed produces filtrate?


A. glomerulus


B. peritubular capillaries


C. juxtaglomerular complex


D. vasa recta

glomerulus (A)

What is the function of the macula dense cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?


A. produce filtrate


B. pass regulatory signals between the extraglomerular mesangial cells


C. monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule


D. sense blood pressure in the afferent arteriole

monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule (C)

Which vessel directly feeds into the glomerulus?


A. vasa recta


B. afferent arteriole


C. cortical radiate artery


D. efferent arteriole

afferent arteriole (B)

The __________ is an outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney and the adrenal gland to surrounding structures. The __________ prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidneys.


A. fibrous capsule; perirenal fat capsule


B. renal fascia; fibrous capsule


C. fibrous capsule; renal fascia


D. renal fascia; perirenal fat capsule

renal fascia; fibrous capsule (B)

The __________ collect(s) urine, which drains continuously from the papillae; the urine is then emptied into the __________.


A. calyces; renal pelvis


B. renal pelvis; calyces


C. renal pyramids; renal pelvis


D. renal pyramids; calyces

calyces; renal pelvis (A)

Which of the following is the functional unit of the kidney?


A. renal corpuscle


B. nephron


C. renal pyramid


D. renal pelvis

nephron (B)

The renal corpuscle is made up of:


A. the renal papilla


B. the descending loop of Henle


C. the renal pyramid


D. Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus (D)

The filtration membrane includes all except:


A. renal fascia


B. podocytes


C. glomerular endothelium


D. basement membrane

renal fascia (A)

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal. (T/F)

True

Which pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?


A. hydrostatic pressure in the capsular space


B. colloid osmotic pressure in glomerular capillaries


C. colloid osmotic pressure in the capsular space


D. hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries

hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (D)

Upon reaching what point in the nephron is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body's needs at the time, and (2) regulated by hormones?


A. descending limb of the loop of Henle


B. ascending limb of the loop of Henle


C. distal convoluted tubule


D. proximal convoluted tubule

distal convoluted tubule (C)

Despite the fact that the kidney's intrinsic controls work to maintain a constant GFR, in some situations the body's extrinsic controls will work to override these intrinsic controls in order to maintain systemic blood pressure. (T/F)

True

Under normal conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs all of the glucose, lactate, and amino acids in the filtrate and 65% of the Na+ and water. (T/F)

True

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.


A. collecting duct


B. glomerular filtration membrane


C. loop of Henle


D. distal convoluted tubule

loop of Henle (C)

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of:


A. plasma protein


B. electrolytes


C. glucose


D. hormones

plasma protein (A)

Which of the hormones blow is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?


A. atrial natriuretic peptide


B. thyroxine


C. aldosterone


D. ADH

ADH (D)

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process (T/F)

False

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water. (T/F)

True

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate. (T/F)

True

Which statement best describes the function of the urethra?


A. The urethra transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder


B. The urethra functions in urine storage


C. The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body


D. The urethra carries out processes that form urine

The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (C)

What type of epithelial tissue forms the mucosa layer of the urinary bladder?


A. transitional epithelium


B. simple squamous epithelium


C. stratified squamous epithelium


D. pseudo stratified columnar epithelium

transitional epithelium (A)

Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process?


A. tubular reabsorption


B. micturition


C. tubular secretion


D. glomerular filtration

micturition (B)

Which urinary structure serves as the temporary storage site for urine?


A. renal pelvis


B. urinary bladder


C. ureter


D. urethra

urinary bladder (B)

The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle (T/F)

True

Which structure is highlighted?
A. renal papilla
B. minor calyx
C. renal column
D. renal artery

Which structure is highlighted?


A. renal papilla


B. minor calyx


C. renal column


D. renal artery

minor calyx (B)

Which structure is highlighted?
A. renal pelvis
B. renal pyramid
C. major calyx
D. minor calyx

Which structure is highlighted?


A. renal pelvis


B. renal pyramid


C. major calyx


D. minor calyx

renal pelvis (A)

Which region of the kidney is most superficial?


A. renal cortex


B. renal column


C. renal pelvis


D. renal medulla

renal cortex (A)

Where does filtration of the blood occur within the kidneys?


A. renal pyramids


B. renal pelvis


C. renal medulla


D. renal cortex

renal cortex (D)

Where are the renal columns located?


A. renal pyramids


B. renal medulla


C. renal pelvis


D. renal cortex

renal medulla (B)

Identify the correct direction of urine flow from formation to exiting the kidney


A. ureter, renal pelvis, medulla, cortex


B. cortex, medulla, ureter, renal pelvis


C. medulla, cortex, renal pelvis, ureter


D. cortex, medulla, renal pelvis, ureter

cortex, medulla, renal pelvis, ureter (D)

Which structure is found separating the renal pyramids?


A. renal papillae


B. renal pelvis


C. ureter


D. renal columns

renal columns (D)

What is the function of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra?


A. helping to control blood pressure


B. electrolyte and acid-base balance


C. transporting or storing urine


D. excreting metabolic waste products

transporting or storing urine (C)

The outermost portion of the kidney is called the renal:


A. column


B. pelvis


C. cortex


D. medulla

cortex (C)

List the parts of the nephron in correct sequential order: ________.


A. glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle


B. loop of Henle, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule


C. proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, glomerulus


D. glomerulus, loop of Henle, proximal convoluted tubule

glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle (A)

The vessel that supplies blood to the nephron is called the ________.


A. renal artery


B. afferent arteriole


C. renal vein


D. efferent arteriole

afferent arteriole (B)

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

adrenal gland

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

glomerular capsule

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

minor calyx

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

renal artery

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

renal cortex

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

renal pyramid

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

renal vein

Identify the highlighted structure

Identify the highlighted structure

ureter

Which structure is highlighted?
A. proximal convoluted tubule
B. afferent arteriole
C. glomerulus
D. glomerular capsule

Which structure is highlighted?


A. proximal convoluted tubule


B. afferent arteriole


C. glomerulus


D. glomerular capsule

glomerulus (C)

Which structure is highlighted?
A. renal pelvis
B. renal column
C. renal papilla
D. renal capsule

Which structure is highlighted?


A. renal pelvis


B. renal column


C. renal papilla


D. renal capsule

renal capsule (D)

What is the normal pH for urine?


A. 7-10


B. 7.35-7.45


C. 2-6


D. 4.5-8

4.5-8 (D)

If an individual had uncontrolled diabetes, what would you expect to find in their urine?


A. proteins


B. leukocytes


C. blood


D. glucose

glucose (D)

What would appear in urine with UTI?

blood cells

What would appear in urine during starvation?

ketone bodies

It is normal for blood cells to be present in urine (T/F)

False

It is normal to have a trace or no proteins in urine (T/F)

True