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110 Cards in this Set

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Things that spurred US interests in Latin America
1) expand trade
2) Expansionism
3) gold strikes in CA (need quicker route to CA)
4) Desire to extend slavery
Hay-Herran Treaty
-Between US and Colombia (Panama=Northern province of Colombia @ this time)
-passed by US senate but rejected by Columbian senate because it was too cheap
a) US 6-mile-wide corridor across Panama
b) US pay Colombia $10 mil up front
c) US pay $250 thousand per year in rent
"Bandits of Bogota"
Roosevelt's name for the Colombian rejection of the Hay-Herran Treaty; plans Revolution in Panama by:
1)bribing govt workers
2)disrupting RR service from Panama to Colombia*
3)bringing US troops to cover, via the USS Nashville*

* to prevent Colombian army
Hay Bunau-Varila Treaty
New treaty between US and Panama; tennets:
a) US gains 10-mile-wide canal zone across Panama
b)US contols this canal zone for 100 years
c)US guaruntees Panamanian independence
d)US pays Panama $10 mil and $250 k/yr
Venezuela Boundary Dispute
-(1895)Between Venezuela and British Colony "Guyana"
-Gold discovered in Eastern Venezuela + Guyana
-US intervenes to mediate dispute
^ British angry; US say "its our business too"--British let them because they're focused on the Bohr War in S. Africa
-RESULT: US prestige (as world player) climbs
British Colony in Northern South America ; jungle (many geographic novelties in S. Amer)
Atacama Desert
Desert in Northern Chile. Driest place on earth. Greatest mineral deposits in the world (good for fertilizer)
Bohr War
War in South Africa from 1895 to 19; UK was interested because of gold and diamonds.
Amazon River
River in South America--widest in the world
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1950 treaty between the US and England. Agree: -to work together to build canal across Central America
-neither party would fortify the canal
Ferdinand Delessups
Private firm tries to build a canal across Central America in the 1870s but FAILS because of disease, swamps, mountains, humidity
they abandon EVERYTHING
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 treaty between the British and US
-cancels Clayton- Bulwer treaty
-US plans to build alone
Doctor William Gorgas
Doctor who cures yellow fever and malaria in Panama (after Canal's completion)by improving sanitation, swamps, and protecting against mosquitoes
Panama Canal Completion
1914 by Black laborers from the Caribbean; many die from yellow fever and malaria--cured by Doctor William Gorgas
US/Roosevelt's attitude re. foreign affairs c. 1914
-US navy quick transport East to West
-soothes US fears of Japan in the Pacific and Germany in Atlantic
-US don't want WWI, but want $$ (munitions business)
-Panama now a US protectorate (foreign policies and economics)
Background of Spanish-American War
Spain=-weak colonial power (influence declining since Mexico claimed independence)
-owns Cuba, but Cuba wants independence
Valeriano Weyler
aka "The Butcher"; man sent by Spain to stop rebels during the insurrection in Cuba
-commits atrocities, destroys property and people
Cuban insurrection
Part of the Spanish-American War--1895; goal=independence; guerilla warfare, ppl burn sugarcane to ruin Spain's profits
Yellow Press "Kings"
-Pulitzer of the NY World
-Hearst of the NY Journal
Yellow Press in the Spanish-American War
Used sensationalist tactics, bold letters, exagerrations to put war on the front-burner; called the Sp/Am war the "Dirty War";
-USS Maine
-Delome Letter
Today: Herald uses it sometimes
USS Maine
Battleship anchored in Cuba
-Blown up, 300 killed (nobody knows who did it)
-yellow press kept insisting on need for revenge
Delome Letter
Letter that was intercepted and leaked to the public.
-Written by a Spanish diplomat in Washington and sent to Spain
-Says that Pres. McKinley is a weak politician for not getting involved in Cuba, and that he had nothing to lose in doing it
Result: furor!
Redfield Proctor
Vermont Senator who visits Cuba and returns in 1898, touring the US and reporting of atrocities against women in Cuba by the Spaniards, destruction of US businesses, concentration camps
Impact of Delome Letter and USS Maine on the Spanish-American War
-Catapulted US towards war (US not interested in Cuban independence--just wanted them free and under OUR control)
-Spanish backpedals as soon as its clear they'll have to fight the US (but the die has been cast )
Rough Riders
Fighters hired by Teddy Roosevelt to invade Cuba. Stormed batteries at San Juan Hill.
-Press makes TR a military hero, even though he isn't at the battle (they got there too late--the Buffalo Soldiers had gotten there first!)
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1898, marking the US victory of the Spanish-American war
-US gets Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines, Cuba
-US pays Spain $20 million
Platt Amendment
1) Cuba will have no dealings with foreign powers without US approval
2)US reserves the right to intervene in Cuban domestic affairs
3)US agrees to destroy yellow fever in Cuba
4)Cuba agrees to lease Guantanamo Bay to the US for 100 years
Dr. Walter Reed
destroyed yello fever in Cuba as part of the Platt Amendment
Guantanamo Bay
SE tip of Cuba, US still owns it today as a naval base and prison; Cuba agreed to lease it to us for 100 years as part of the Platt Amendment
Monroe Doctrine
1823; lynchpin of US foreign policy
Stated that the Western Hemisphere is no longer open to European influence (under OUR sphere of influence)

-later, Spansh eviction ended US colonization
-Europe thought the US was arrogant and crazy @ the time
"American Lake"
1904, Name for the Caribbean Sea once under US sphere of influence (thanks to TR)
Santo Domingo
-capitol of Domenican Republic, used to be the DR's name
-shares an island with Haiti
Port Au Prince
capital of Haiti
Santo Domingo pre 1904
-internal chaos and bankrupcy (owe Europe $$)
-can't control imports
-$$ goes to dictators, not the government
Why the US fears Europe's occupation of the Domenican Republic
Europe would be back in the Western Hemisphere, and would intrude upon Panama Canal's construction
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
Theodore Roosevelt, as a result of the threat of European seizure of Santo Domingo, creates this in 1904. It states: "chronic wrongdoing and/or irresponsible actions* by any nation in the Western Hemisphere may ultimately justify intervention in otder to keep that nation in compliance with the Monroe Doctrine"

*includes bankrupcy, irresponsible spending of customs, inability to control imports, having alliances with the wrong countries
US troops in Santo Domingo
-seize customs houses
-use taxes to pay back European nations
-use some $$ to restore order there
President (dictator) of Nicaragua from 1893 to 1909
William Walker
-Fillibusters Nicaragua in 1852 and makes himself king;
-aka "Grey-Eyed Man of Destiny"
-eventually killed there and beheaded
-makes Nicaragua angry/hostile towards US
"Banana Republic"
Name for Nicaragua in reference to US business interest there because of bananas.
-Dole, Del Monte, and United Fruit Company all involved
-corrupt plantation labor
Knox-Castrillo Treaty
Instituted in 1910 by US troops in Nicaragua.
1)US has the right to intervene in Nicaragua
2)US has the right to control customs
3)Nicaragua must refund/restructure their national debt
Nicaraguan Response to the Knox-Castrillo Treaty
-US forced to send 1000s more troops, which stay until 1935
(Nicaraguans really hate us)
"Gunboat Diplomacy"
Name for the increase in military actions and fear tactics as part of Roosevelt's foreign policy in the Caribbean; aka "Big Stick Diplomacy" and "Bayonet Diplomacy"
-problem: violation of other nations' sovereignty
Roosevelt's Famous Quote regarding Gunboat Diplomacy/fear tactics
"Walk softly and carry a big stick"
Vibron Sam
Flamboyant dictator of Haiti in the early 1900s.
-peasant roots
-meteoric rise
-once he got to the top, was assassinated
Haiti pre-1895
-Vibron Sam=dictator
-$250 million debt (borrowed $ from Germany to build RR)
US in Haiti
1895, Woodrow Wilson sends marines and forms a 10-year protectorate, during which we occupy customs houses and force Haiti to adopt strict financial practices.
-We do not le them borrow more $$ from foreign governments
-eventually, we leave
US and Mexico's history of bad relations (pre-1900)
1)Mexican-American War (1846-48)
2)Mexican Cession (CA, AZ, CO, TX)
3)Henry Crabbe/fillibuster
5)US army in Mexico (while chasing the Apaches, they fought and illegally killed MX soldiers and civilians)
Henry Crabbe
Fillibusterer who seized the Mexican state of Sonora in 1857 and made himself dictator
rich Mexican landowners in CA, were promised the same rights by the "Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo", but eventually were dispossessed.
Revolution of 1911
Mexico, 1911
-President Diaz kicked out of office
-Internal problems such as poverty, lack of democracy, tiny middle class (and therefore cant raise taxes), lack of industry
-HUGE competition for presidency
Presidential Candidates in Mexico, c. 1911
Zapata, Villa, Carranza, Huerta; equivalent of Chinese warlords (headed guerilla forces, esentially ruled sections of the country.
-V+Z=peasant leaders
-all try to appeal to Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson's "Watchful Waiting"
1913: In which president Wilson waited ("the jury is still out") to find out Mexican presidential candidacy results instead of siding with one of them.
-This angered Pancho Villa
Columbus, New Mexico
1916: Place which Pancho Villa, angered by Wilson's "Watchful Waiting", invaded and killed 25 American civilians so as to embarass Wilson.
"Punitive Expedition"
Organized by Woodrow Wilson in response to Villa's invasion (1916)in order to kill Villa.
-FAILURE (never even see him)
-1st time the US military used airplanes
-1st time US military used the National Guard (and discovered they were incompetent)
Black Jack Pershing
Head of Wilson's "Punitive Expedition" for Villa.
-today, known for "Pershing Rifle" and later headed American troops in Europe during WWI
Santa Ysabel Massacre
1917, Mexico.
-Mexicans take 18 mining engineers from a train and excute them.
-Pancho Villa was suspected to be behind it.
In what year does Carranza become president of Mexico?
Bombing of Vera Cruz
1914; organized by Woodrow Wilson.
-2nd bombardment of this place (1st by Gen. Winfield Scott), which angered Mexicans
-many killed
(US and Mexico do not officially repair relations until the mid-1920s)
Charles Limbergh
Ambassador who flies from NYC to Mexico City in 1927 to fix relations.
-somewhat successful, but relations still shaky and Mexico still in disarray
-Had flown the 1st transatlantic fight to Paris
Lodge Corollary
Monroe Doctrine extension in 1911.
-stated that the private companies with close ties to governments cannot own or lease strategic land in the Western Hemisphere, and in such cases the US has the right to intervene
-response to the Magdalena Bay Controversy
Magdalena Bay
Located in Baja California, on the "Gulf of California"; in 1910-1911 a Japanese company tried to lease it to Mexico.
-Is never leased, and Mexico gets mad
-US does it because they are suspicious of Japan's meteoric rise to a Worldwide competitor
Henry Cabot Lodge
Massachusetts senator who launches an objection to Mexico leasing Magdalena Bay from Japan.
(-Doesn't want a private company with close ties to an enemy government as it may upset the balance.)
Other names for the Gulf of California
-Vermillion Sea
-Sea of Cortez
US in Honduras
Invades in 1909.
-Does the same as with other Caribbean nations (occupies customs houses, forces $$ restrictions, leaves)
Important Issues with US foreign policy
1)Spehere of influence (US thinks all of the Western Hemisphere, c. 1900)
2)Monroe Doctrine (1823)
3)Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
4)Lodge Corollary (1911)
5)Protect Panama Canal (1904-1914)
Tenett of US foreign policy:
-stay hidden and not get involved in wars as it might be destructive to us
-still existent to some extent today, but we have been forced out of it by necessity (oil, alliances, ideals) and put ourselves in the role of "world policeman"
-Roosevelt had to drag us into WWII
Why is Isolationism a problem for the US?
-We want to be a world power, but also want to stay hidden and not get involved in wars
-War helps WW commerce (MUNITIONS)
-war is expensive today, but we can't bail out
US as "World Policeman" today
-Colombia (war on drugs)
-probably other places
Common Attitudes in Europe, c. 1914
1)Nationalism (every citizen has most important duty to serve nation)
2)militarism (due to suspicion)
3)self-centeredness from Industrial revolution
4)armaments needed (revolution) tanks, planes, machine guns, submarines
4)monarchies declining (Austria-Hungary, Russia, Ottoman Empire)
5)secret military alliances in case of attack
6)Japan and China are to be used as military bases and to distract/preoccupy foes (England re. Russia)
7)US rising power, but still seen in rearview mirror (Euro threats are Britain, France, Germany, Italy)
8)Survival of the fittest/social darwinism
9)Need for powerful/far-ranging navy
10)missionaries in Africa, Asian Islands, Pacific (colonialism still exists; Germany late start)
Common Conditions in Europe, c. 1914
1)self determination of peoples ignored (Yugoslavia)
2)religious and radical intolerance abundant
3)firm believers in White Man's Burden (others, exploitation)
4)playing off various countries against each other (Japan and China)
5)many ethnic groups under rubric of empires
6)unequal treatment of nations in commerce and freedom of the seas (some get better deals,ports, cheaper customs, vessels)
7)increase in unemployment from industrial revolution
8)revenge for real or imagined injustices in the past
France on the Eve of WWI
-smaller than germany
slower birthrate than Germany
-WORRIED re. contest with England over world power, now ousiders (no longer world power)
-Treaty of Versailles weakens them
-unofficial alliance with England to defend Germany
-major player in Europe, but slipping rapidly
-poor military and defense
Treaty of Versailles
France, 1871.
-France lost Alsace and Lorraine to Germany
-Reparations were $5 billion francs, which Grance paid off in 3 years
Russia c. 1914
-"sleeping giant"
-huge population
-poor army (no good officers, no discipline)
-wanted to be player in Europe and Asia
-completed Transiberian RR in 1890s
-$$ problems
-not united
Germany, c. 1914
-army in 1900 is 6x the size of army from 1870 (increase in militarism thanks to Bismarck)
-expect British to side with France during conflict
-important to win ONE major battle
-invade through Belgium (easy bc flat and no rivers)
Otto Von Bismarck
Prussian minister who becomes great leader of the German military and builds it up
England c. 1914
-unofficial alliance with France from 1905 (because Russia is crushed by Japanese at Muckden and no longer dependable ally)
-aware that Germany would attack through Belgium, and that they needed defense because Germans would be angered by their alliance with Britain
-Best navy in Europe, but Germany coming close
-no official treaty obligations to help France, just assumed to rule seas and fight on land
US circa 1900
-feels great for winning the Spanish-American War
-population~100 million
-more RR than all of Europe combined (10x); great transport
-huge amount of natural resources (coal, copper, timber, oil, zing, etc.)
-huge # inventions
-exploding middle class
9esential for tax revenues)
-explosive growth of big businesses (US Steel, Great Northern RR, S. Pacific RR)--monopolies, consumer is cheated
Social Issues in US, c. 1900
-women can't vote
-200,000 Native Americans left
-African/Mexican Americans live in segregated societies
-Middle class expanding and moving to cities
-consequently, businesses target products towards middle class
-automobiles for middle class
-"Leisure time" emerges
-advertising/commercialization (esp. Christmas)
-farmers more productive bc of technological advances
US Foreign Relations, c. 1900
1)maintain neutrality and isolation
2)despite physical isolation, becomes more involved economically with the rest of the world (businesses funded by Euro banks because no Federal Reserves bank until 1913)
3)despite claim for isolation/neutrality, US is making agressive push into the Pacific
4)US navy growing (world tour 1890s to show size and versatality, including to Japan--threat)
5)want to be friends with Europe, but stay out of their affairs
6)aggressive in the Pacific and in Latin America
7)want to stay hidden from war (despite our profit in munitions)
Reason why Japan hates the US, c. 1900-1920
1)Angel Island (1910)
2)Asiatic Exclusion League (1905)
3)Alien Land Law (1913)
4)First Quota Act (1920)
5)San Francisco School Segregation Case (1905)
6)Lodge Corollary (1911)
Washington's Farewell Address
1795--warned that the US should stay out of "entangling alliances" (esp w/ Europe) because they could lead to war and bankrupcy.
-genesis of American Isolationism/lynchpin of Foreign policy (along w/ Monroe Doctrine)
Archduke Ferdinand
Austro-Hungarian monarch of the Balkans, assassinated by Princeps of the Black Hand terrorist org. in 1914
aka "Yugoslavia"; composed of many different ethnic/religious groups that all hate each other and want independence. Is ruled by Austria-Hungary, and there is much terrorism during the early 20th century
Member of the Terrorist organization "The Black Hand", who assassinated Archduke Ferdinand in 1914
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Italy--alliance during WWI
Allied Powers
England, France, Russia--alliance during WWI
US at beginning of WWI
-declares "neutrality" (but natural allies of England)
-England uses propaganda (esp. POSTERS portraying Germans as barbarians and "Huns") to lure the US into war
-US makes much $$ in munitions (double-dealing)
British<>US cruise ship, torpedoed by German sub in 1915; 1,100 perish (140 Americans)
-US smuggle arms onto it
-Germany had warned about consequences of smuggling arms beforehand
-Britain used it as propaganda
Dr. Constantin Dumba
Austro-Hungarian spy, expelled from the US in 1915 for having secret documents of US munitions plans and trying to organize active resistance
Ship torpedoed in 1915, and several Americans were injured.
-Made Woodrow Wilson angry--made the "Sussex Pledge"
"Sussex Pledge"
Woodrow Wilson's demand, after the torpedo of the Sussex, that submarine warfare be RESTRICTED to naval vessels ONLY and no passenger ships.
-Germany, whose sub warfare had escalated as they planned a torpedo blockade to retaliate against Britain's blockade of Germany, agreed to back off.
Black Tom Island
-Munitions factory in Northern New Jersey
-Mysteriously blown up in 1916, nvr found out who did it
-suspicion that it was German agents
-@ this time, many US RR's were blown up, and German agents were caught
USS Housatonic
US vessel named after a major MA river
-torpedoed by Germans in 1916
-Wilson was furious, but still stayed out (even after this, which was the 3rd US ship blown up)
Zimmerman Note
-the LAST STRAW that sends US to WWI
-like Delome Letter, between German diplomats in Mexico and Germany
-intercepted by the British, who decoded it and held it until Feb. 1917
--intstructs highest ranking German diplomat in Mexico to:
1)attack the US
2)convince Japan to join the war against the US
3)spy on the US
in return for...
4)Mexican Cession (minus CA)
-Wilson furious, takes it to congress in early April to DECLARE WAR against the Central powers
US Role in WWI
1)1,400,000 serve
2)112,000 die (most from disease)
3)US leader=Black Hack Pershing (but mostly takes orders from Europe, who looks down upon US army)
4)action @ "Belleau Wood" and "Chateau Thierry"
-war ends in Autumn, 1918
-Trench warfare
Trench Warfare
Type of warfare during WWI
-boring, much waiting
-breeding ground for diesase
-pre-mechanized war
-"dry run for WWII"
What were the two main battles for the US in WWI?
-Belleau Wood
-Chateau Thierry
League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson's proposal to unite nations as a result of WWI.
Failed because
-could not enforce peace
-no military "teeth"
-US refused to join
"Bitter Enders"
Name referring to William Borah, Henry Cabot Lodge, and other powerful senators who reused to join the League of Nations
--their refusal literally killed Wilson (stroke)
Fourteen Points
Wilson's proposal; stated:
1)open covenants (no more secret alliances)
2)freedom of the seas
3)reduction of arms
4)removal of economic barriers
5)adjustment/reduction of colonial possesssions (give them independence! no more exploitation!)
6)Europe redrawn along ethnic grounds (direct reference to the Balkans)
7)League of Nations created to settle these problems
8)Austria-Hungary new form of govt (Democracy!)
Plan of San Diego
1915. Plan partially funded by Germany and Japan, was the cause of much violence in the South Western
-Hatched in Monterey, Mexico
-Discovered when Basilio Ramos (original signer) was arrested in McAllen TX in 1915
1)Every North American (Anglo) over 16 years will be put to death
2)Apaches of Arizona and other tribes in SW US will be given their land back
3)All Negroes in US shall be freed and allowed to set up their own country in as many as six of the states
4)Mexicans and Asians treated with respect and allowed to set up states of their own (own republic)
5)Any people found to be traitors to their race would be killed immediately
Tennets of the Progressive Era (1900-1920)
-reaction to the Gilded Age
3)workers rights
4)technical experts
5)better race relations
6)better working conditions
Presidents during the Progressive Era
-T. Roosevelt
-W. Wilson
Sagamore Hill, NY
Roosevelt's vacation home in Oyster Bay, NY
Tennets of the Progressive Era (1900-1920)
-reaction to the Gilded Age
3)workers rights
4)technical experts
5)better race relations
6)better working conditions
Presidents during the Progressive Era
-T. Roosevelt
-W. Wilson
Sagamore Hill, NY
Roosevelt's vacation home in Oyster Bay, NY
Basilio Ramos
one of the original signers of the Plan of San Diego in 1915
McAllen Texas
place where Basilio Ramos was arrested in 1915 for the Plan of San Diego