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26 Cards in this Set

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Describe U.S. and Soviet goals and views of one another at the end of World War II
Both countries feared each other.

America envisioned a future of international peace and prosperity, democractic world open to business expansion.

Soviets wanted to protect from Germany, rebuild shattered economy, and a ring of pro-Soviet countries.
Tension existed within the Great Alliance. Why were the Soviets hostile toward the Americans? Why did the Americans fear the Soviets?
The Soviets resented America because of a lack of support on a revolution. Propoganda stirred up fear. They also thought they wanted a weak Russia. Communism frightened America. We resented past Soviet agreements with Germany.
What was the toll taken in Russian life and property during World War II?
20 million Soviets died.

25 million lost their homes.
Over which six European nations did Stalin demand control at Yalta?
Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia
How was Germany divided at the Potsdam conference?
Western half would be under French, British, and U.S. Control. Eastern half would be under Soviet control.

Berlin divided between four nations, with U.S., France, and Britain on the west side, and Soviets on the east.
Why did the Soviets prefer Roosevelt's style of diplomacy to Truman's?
Truman was impatient and dealth with a position of distrust.
Explain the pattern of hostile actions and reactions that led to the containment policy.
Stalin was oppressive over most of the eastern Europe, forcing loyalty through trials and executions.

Oppressed the middle East after u.s. and britain had pulled troops out.

stalin believed that capitalism and communism would eventually clash.
explain how the truman doctrine and the marshall plan further defined and deepened the cold war.
Truman Doctrine stated that there would be U.S. miltary in Greece and Turkey for containment. Communism is a worldwide threat.

Marshal Plan involved billions of dollars spent to put Europe back on its feet. However nations must buy American goods. Stalin accused the U.S. of controlling western Europe.
Explain the causes of teh Berlin Blockade and its effect ont he division of Europe and the arms race.
Both sides were trying to introduce currency. However Soviets blockaded highways and cut off power to West Berlin. America then airlifted supplies to Berlin. 2,000,000 West Berliners were held hostage.
What alliances were formed after the Berlin crisis?
Nato was formed. Warsaw Pact was formed.
Analyze why communism succeeded in China and how that change affected foreign policy of the United States.
In World War II, Japan crushed nationalism. Communism forces expanded control. Communism in China grew from 100k to 900k.

Truman gave some money...however they failed. The U.S. started an arms build up.
Review events in the Korean War and their effect on presidential power and military growth.
North Korea invades South Korea. This challenged containment. Truman sends air and naval forces without approval of congress. This is an example of presidential power. Confrontation left a stalemate at 38th parallel.
What led to the involvement of UN forces in Korea? How successful were they?
Invasion challenged containment policy.

Statement at 38th parallel.
What was NSC-68, and what did it suggest?
It was a national security council report on a study of u.s. defense.

suggested that u.s. lead the fight against Soviets.
Why did President Truman relieve General Douglas MacArthur of his command in Korea?
MacArthur overly aggressive against North Korea, suggest atomic bomb. After Truman negated plans, Macarthur publicly criciticzed the president.
Explain the effect the Soviet Bomb on American society and the arms race.
America didn't feel safe anymore. We felt shocked, confused, and terrified. Large number o atomic named products on market. Media offered advice and intensified fears.
When and where was first Hydrogen bomb tested?
1952, on a coral island in the south Pacific.
Explain the policy of massive retaliation. What is the othe rname for this policy?
An instant nuclear attack by means and a place of their choosing.

Also called brinkmanship.
Explain the causes and effects of Eisenhower's massive retaliation strategy.
Warned that if invasion happened, bombs would be dropped. Eisenhower focused more on cheaper air power and nuclear weapons to save money.
Explain the reasons for a growing disarmament movement and the outcomes of that movement.
Eisenhower wanted a contribution of radioactive weapons stockpile. Nuclear testing was polluting environment. Nuclear war was pointless. Stalin's death gave hope to a new relationship between U.S. and USSR. However there wasn't any change. They were willing to talk though.
What was sputnik?
First Satellite. Launched by Soviets on October 4, 1957.
Analyze the effects of sputnik on America's military, schools, and industry.
Eisenhower launched NASA, increased funds for missile development. Billions of dollars went to university for weapon research and training engineer and scientists.
Analyze the political change in third world countries and explain the competition for third world loyalty.
Third World countries gained independence from colonial rule. 37 new countries were created.
Explain the CIA involvement.
Protect national security
Report to President directly.
Review American policy in the Middle East and explain its importance.
Americans intent on now allowing Mossadegh take control. Helped Shah of Iran to defeat Mossadegh and regain power. Two primary reasons why U.S. got involved - oil and believed that Iran was prime land for communism.
Review U.S. involvement in Cuba and the effects of the Cuban missile crisis.
U.S. interested in Cuba because of communist threat misile range. Soviets build missiles in cuba and u.s. starts a blockade. Brought world to brink of nuclear war closest ever been, and since then.