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39 Cards in this Set

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Describe how generalized Reinforcement can distort tacts:
When the verbal community cannot or does not maintain tight stimulus control, GRC may lead to tact distortion by differentially reinforcing forms of the tact response that are rewarding to the listener. Thus the tacting response's control shifts from control by a prior nonverbal stimulus (Sd control) to contingencies of reinforcement provided by the listener.
Give an example of how generalized reinforcement can distort tacts:
Fish story, Heroic story, and Fiction writing.
Describe the scale of distortion:
There is a scale of distortion. Some distortion results in the emission of a response which has received a special measure of reinforcement being emitted in the absence of the circumstances under which it is characteristically reinforced. The highest is when a response is emitted under the circumstances which normally control an incompatible response (a lie).
5 ways that the verbal community can distort tacts:
1. Generalized reinforcement

2. Non-generalized reinforcement from the operant behavior of the listener.

3. Non-generalized reinforcement from the emotional behavior of the listener.

4. Nongeneralized reinforcement from alterations in strength of listener's response

5. Automatic reinforcement from speaker.
Describe how Non-generalized reinforcement from operant behavior of the listener can distort a tact:
1. The tact control is distorted by its ability to elicit a behavior in the listener (impure tact). The tact comes under the control of the behavior of the listener.
2. Thus the form or frequency of the tact that is more likely to result in action from the listener will become more probable. The tact is shaped by the behavior of the listener.
Describe how Non-generalized reinforcement from emotional behavior of the listener can distort a tact:
1. The tact control is distorted by the emotional respondent behavior of the listener (Impure tact). The tact comes under the control of the emotional respondent behavior of the listener.
2. The form of the tact may illicit an emotional reaction from the listener. If this reaction is rewarding to the speaker, then the response frequency or form that produces the desired results will increase in probability.
Impure tact vs Pure tact
A Pure tact is completely under the control of generalized reinforcement, Sd control. The form is determined solely by the environment.

An impure tact is a tact that is under the control of multiple or other sources.
In what two senses may a tact be true?
Does the community reinforce it?
Is the tact purely under Sd control?
List and describe the three types of special reinforcement from effects upon the speaker and how they distort tact control:
1. Automatic reinforcement by imitation of manners of others - Speaker may reinforce self for standard forms and extinguish deviant behavior.
2. Automatic reinforcement by speaking about topics speaker finds reinforcing - Speaker may reinforce self for verbal behavior (topics) that is rewarding to the speaker.
3. Automatic negative reinforcement by rationalization - Speakers verbal behavior removes an aversive condition like guilt or anxiety.
Distinguish between textual and nontextual responses of the reader:
1. Textual responses are made under the control of visual stimuli, this is reacting to one’s own textual behavior as a listener.

2. Non-textual responses are responses in which the reader does not react to the textual behavior as a listener.

Example of non-textual responses is short-circuiting. This is seeing a textual stimulus and reacting to it like any other discriminative stimulus. This behavior is not verbal.
Define Audience:
Audience is a discriminative stimulus in the presences of which verbal behavior is characteristically reinforced (and therefore characteristically strong in its presences).
What is the difference between the audience function and the listener function?
Audience is an SD for reinforcement being available.

Listener provides consequences for verbal behavior.
What is the role of the listener in the audience?
Listener is part of the occasion upon which VB is reinforced and part of the occasion controlling the strength of the behavior.
List the three aspects of behavior that audience determines:
1. Determines frequency of the behavior - whether it will be emitted.
2. Determines subdivision of the language in which it occurs - jargon, dialect, etc.
3. Determines the type of responses made - subject matter.
How is audience function established?
1. The control that a listener has over the speaker behavior is a product of a long history in which his audience character has been established.
2. This establishes a history of reinforcement in the speaker in the presences of a set of characteristics in the listener and the environment.
3. Listener and environmental characteristics that are present when a verbal response is present gain control over the verbal behavior through stimulus induction. Thus listeners or environments with similar characteristics will gain control over the verbal behavior of the speaker.
4. The total environmental and listener characteristics that function as an Sd for the speaker as to when and what types of verbal behavior will be reinforced is the audience.
What is a negative audience?
A negative audience is a Sd for punishment or the occasion for punishment of VB frequency or form.
How do places, verbal stimuli acquire an audience effect.
When verbal behavior is reinforced or punished in a given place, the characteristics or the place itself might gain audience control. The characteristics are paired with the consequence supplied by the listener and through induction may gain control over the verbal behavior.
Describe the functional independence of:
Verbal Operants (unsure still)
Operants are functionally independent. The response does not have an inherit meaning and thus a tact would not transfer to a mand because the response form has not been reinforced in that context.
Describe the functional independence of:
Writing and speaking (unsure still)
May say something and write something different, because the two responses are controlled by different repertoires.
Describe the functional independence of:
Speaker and listener repertoires (unsure still)
Speaker repertoires are independent of the listener because the behaviors have different functions and are controlled by different variables.

Speaker is not necessarily a listener and a listener does not spontaneously become a speaker.
Describe the functional independence of:
Responses in different languages (unsure still)
i. Verbal community’s reinforcement of the response associated with the object being tacted or manded.
ii. Many such transitions may be outright translations made possible only through the prior acquisition of an intraverbal repertoire established explicitly for this purpose.
iii. Minimal repertoires suffice to bridge the gap between all sublanguages in the same phonetic or orthographic system
iv. Important cases are those in which no minimal repertoires are common to the two languages.
Describe some variables that strength verbal behavior without respect to form:
1. MO of Lack of listener attention.
2. Aversive stimulation-stalls in conversation, unpleasant topics
3. Stalling for time
4. Concealing other activities
5. Providing examples
6. Holding attention
Describe how operant conditioning affects the rate of verbal behavior:
1. Verbal behavior is affected by contingencies of reinforcement and punishment.
2. The availability of VB, response strength are dependent upon whether and when reinforcement is provided and motivating operations.
3. If reinforcement is abundant, or the behavior is affected by a given state of deprivation, or the schedule of reinforcement is appropriate then a person might emit copious amounts of verbal behavior and are likely to be labeled as talkative, energetic, or enthusiastic.
4. If reinforcement for VB is scarce, or the behavior is affected by a given state of satiation, or the schedule of reinforcement is inappropriate then VB will likely decrease and are likely to be labeled as dull, not talkative, or uninterested.
What is extinction of a verbal response?
Extinction is the result of the verbal community not reinforcing a response. Responses are extinguished, but they are not forgotten. These responses are just not emitted in the circumstances in which it was extinguished. May be emitted in another circumstance.
What is "forgetting"?
Forgetting is the passage of time without the opportunity to respond. Responses that are “forgotten” have not been emitted because the opportunity and control of an audience for this response has not been present.
What behaviors are least likely to be forgotten?
Echoic and textual behaviors are the least likely to be forgotten b/c we have echoed or read many other responses which have the same minimal repertoires during the time between reading it the first time and reading it the next time.

The controlling relation between a specific object and its common name is supported by all instances in which similar objects lead to any type of extended tact, and all these extensions are reinforced and are independently a part of the repertoire of the speaker.
Why might proper noun/names (tacts) be forgotten?
Forgetting proper names (tacts) may have something to do with the infrequency of reinforcement or by frequent interference from similar names or similar occasions having the same name.
Describe why verbal responses deteriorate:
1. The overall level of reinforcement for VB will affect the repertoire: A quite person vs. a talkative person, long delays lead to weak behavior, intermittent reinforcement or delays or gaps in reinforcement can sufficiently weaken verbal behavior (behaving with uncertainty).
2. Extinction: Decrease in VB resulting from a lack of reinforcement.
3. Forgetting: Deterioration of verbal responses as a result of time
4. Verbal behavior will depend on contingencies- Relaxed contingencies will result in deterioration. This is the law of least effort.
What is the law of least effort? Provide an example.
1. This is the law of least effort is a response assumes the form closest to the minimum which satisfies a contingency.
2. An example is using a shorter response such as cannot being shortened to can’t. Relaxed contingencies in which the verbal community reinforces a shortened response.
What causes deterioration of verbal responses to stop?
Deterioration of verbal behavior ends when the behavior is no longer reinforced.
1.What are the four factors that lead to cessation of verbal behavior?
2.Give a example to each of the four factors that lead to cessation of verbal behavior:
1. Changes in deprivation. - receiving an the object manded for, decreases manding behavior.
2. Only one instance reinforced - repetitions of the tact serve as Sdeltas for further reinforcement.
3. Audience characteristics - Audience may tact understanding, "I get it" or provides reward for a different set of verbal responses (like another language).
4. Effects on speaker-
Effects on speaker may cause speaker to stop, talking so loud it causes speaker discomfort. Listener reactions may be specific to speaker and upon emission may stop speaker behavior. (Turn right, and you turn right).
What is Skinner's new definition of VB?
Response of the listener in mediating the speakers behavior have been conditioned precisely in order to reinforce the behavior of the speaker.
What is Skinner's old definition of VB?
Verbal behavior is the behavior reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior.
What does Skinner's new definition of VB exclude?
1. Instances in which the listener participates only as an object. - Pushing another person, surgery.
2. Instances in which the listener's responses are respondent behaviors. Emotional reactions to art.
The two facts of multiple control:
1. The strength of one response is usually a function of more than one variable.
2. A single variable affects more than one response and multiple variables may be additive.
What are formal sources of strength?
Responses that have point to point correspondence- involve echoic and textual responses. (Formal meaning form in this context)

AKA echoic or textual relation
What are thematic sources of strength?
Two responses are thematically related when they are controlled by a common variable with respect to which they lack the point to point correspondence seen in echoic or textual behavior.

AKA intraverbal relation
What is the difference between main controlling variable and secondary sources of strength:
Main source: the primary variable controlling the response, verbal or nonverbal stimuli occasioning a tact or intraverbal.

Secondary source: Second variable contributing to the form or theme response. Formal or thematic.
Whats the difference between a good pun and a bad pun?
Good - Secondary source of strength is relevant. King is not a good subject.

Bad - Secondary source of strength is irrelevant. Lets make like a tree and leave.