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16 Cards in this Set

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Primary vs Secondary Curvatures

Starting from the Head and Neck

Abnormal Curvatures of the Vertebral Column

Kyphosis (Hunchback): Increased THORACIC curvature usually resulFngfrom osteoporosis




Lordosis (Swayback):Increased LUMBAR or CERVICAL curvature due toweakened abdominal muscles oQen associated with pregnancy orobesity




Scoliosis: LATERAL curvature that is more commonly associated withfemales

Structure of Typical Vertebrae

• Vertebral Body: weight barring 
• Vertebral Arch: pedicle +laminae 
• Transverse Processes: ligament/muscle attachment 
• Articular Processes: superiorand inferior 
• Vertebral Notches: superior andinferior 
o Forms INTERVERBRAL CANAL

• Vertebral Body: weight barring


• Vertebral Arch: pedicle +laminae


• Transverse Processes: ligament/muscle attachment


• Articular Processes: superiorand inferior


• Vertebral Notches: superior andinferior


o Forms INTERVERBRAL CANAL

Identifying Features of Vertebrae: Cervical

Cervical (C1-C7): 
• Bifid spinous process, transverse foramen, kidneyshaped vertebral foramen with a SMALL body 
• C1 (Atlas): lack body and spinous process 
o 2 ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINTS – “YES”nodding 
• C2 (Axis): contains DENS (odo...

Cervical (C1-C7):


• Bifid spinous process, transverse foramen, kidneyshaped vertebral foramen with a SMALL body


• C1 (Atlas): lack body and spinous process


o 2 ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINTS – “YES”nodding


• C2 (Axis): contains DENS (odontoid process) whicharticulates with tubercle of C1


o 3 ATLANTO-AXIAL joints (2 lateral and 1median) – “NO” nodding


• C6: contains CARTOID tubercle, vertebral a. entersat level of C6 AFAIK, although C7 also has T.F.

Identifying Features of Vertebrae: THORACIC +LUMBAR

(T1-T12): 
• Costal facets: vertebral body +transverse process – formCOSTOVERTEBRAL andCOSTOTRANSVERSE jointsLumbar 


(L1-L5): 
• LARGE body with blunt spinousprocess

(T1-T12):


• Costal facets: vertebral body +transverse process – formCOSTOVERTEBRAL andCOSTOTRANSVERSE jointsLumbar




(L1-L5):


• LARGE body with blunt spinousprocess

Identifying Features of Vertebrae: SACRUM + COCCYX

Sacrum (S1-S5): 
• Sacral promontory, anterior/posterior sacral foramen(ventral/dorsal rami), 
• Sacral hiatus: most inferiorregion 


Coccyx (Tail Bone): 
• 4 fused bones

Sacrum (S1-S5):


• Sacral promontory, anterior/posterior sacral foramen(ventral/dorsal rami),


• Sacral hiatus: most inferiorregion




Coccyx (Tail Bone):


• 4 fused bones

Ligaments

Anterior + Posterior Longitudinal 
(note PLL c2 up is tech membrane)
Ligamentum Flavum (connect the laminas) 
Interspinous 
Inter transverse 
Supraspinous (Nuchal ligament incervical region) 
Intervertebral Discs 
Joints: zygapophyseal andinterver...

Anterior + Posterior Longitudinal


(note PLL c2 up is tech membrane)


Ligamentum Flavum (connect the laminas)


Interspinous


Inter transverse


Supraspinous (Nuchal ligament incervical region)


Intervertebral Discs


Joints: zygapophyseal andintervertebral

Spinal Cord: Cross Section

• White Matter: superficial 
• Grey Matter: 
o Ventral (Anterior) Horn: motor 
o Dorsal (Posterior) Horn: sensory (runs to the end)
o Lateral Horn: T1- L2/L3

• White Matter: superficial


• Grey Matter:


o Ventral (Anterior) Horn: motor


o Dorsal (Posterior) Horn: sensory (runs to the end)


o Lateral Horn: T1- L2/L3

Meninges of Spinal Cord

• Meninges: 
o Dura mater 
o Arachnoid Mater 
o Pia Mater 
     ▪ Denticulate Ligament: pia mater that reflects off the spinalcord, passes through the arachnoid, and aTaches to dura 


• Meningeal Spaces (continuation from CNS: 
o Epidural: ...

• Meninges:


o Dura mater


o Arachnoid Mater


o Pia Mater


▪ Denticulate Ligament: pia mater that reflects off the spinalcord, passes through the arachnoid, and aTaches to dura




• Meningeal Spaces (continuation from CNS:


o Epidural: contains FAT


o Subdural: potential


o Subarachnoid: CSF

Cauda Equina, Dural Sac, Filum Terminale, Conus Medullaris

• Conus Medullaris: Inferior portion of spinal cord from L2/L3 

• Cauda Equina: nerve rootlets and roots that arisefrom the end of spinal cord 
o Lumbar Puncture: below conus medullaris at L4/L5 
o Epidural injection: L4/L5 (iliac crest is us...

• Conus Medullaris: Inferior portion of spinal cord from L2/L3


• Cauda Equina: nerve rootlets and roots that arisefrom the end of spinal cord


o Lumbar Puncture: below conus medullaris at L4/L5


o Epidural injection: L4/L5 (iliac crest is used as landmark)


• Dural Sac: end of dural mater at S2 level


• Filum Terminale: pia mater that extends fromconus medullaris to coccyx


o Internal and external

Arterial Blood Supply

(1) Longitudinal Arteries: 
• Anterior spinal (1): arises from vertebral a. 
• Posterior Spinal (2): arises from posteriorinferior cerebellar a. or vertebral a. 


(2) Segmental Arteries: Arise fromintercostal a., ascending cervical a.,ascendi...

(1) Longitudinal Arteries:


• Anterior spinal (1): arises from vertebral a.


• Posterior Spinal (2): arises from posteriorinferior cerebellar a. or vertebral a.




(2) Segmental Arteries: Arise fromintercostal a., ascending cervical a.,ascending lumbar a.


• Radicular arteries: branches that supplyroots/rootlets that enter viaINTERVERTEBRAL foramen


• Radicular Magna: single unpaired a. supplymajority of lower spinal cord

Venous Drainage - Valveless

(1) Basovertebral vein: drainsbodies of vertebrae anddrains into VENOUS plexus 


(2) Vertebral Venous System:valveless, runs from pelvis tocranium 
• Anterior INTERNAL/EXTERNAL 
• Posterior INTERNAL/EXTERNAL

(1) Basovertebral vein: drainsbodies of vertebrae anddrains into VENOUS plexus




(2) Vertebral Venous System:valveless, runs from pelvis tocranium


• Anterior INTERNAL/EXTERNAL


• Posterior INTERNAL/EXTERNAL

Spinal Nerves

• 8 cervical: C1 from base of skull + C8between C7/T1: know vert a. entry at C6 
• 12 Thoracic 
• 5 Lumbar 
• 5 Sacral 
• 1 coccygeal

• 8 cervical: C1 from base of skull + C8between C7/T1: know vert a. entry at C6


• 12 Thoracic


• 5 Lumbar


• 5 Sacral


• 1 coccygeal

Pathway of Fibers in Spinal Nerves

(1) Communicans: 
• White Rami: myelinated preganglionicsympathetic fibers 
• Gray Rami: nonmyelinatedpostganglionic sympathetic fibers 


(2) Vertebral Canal: 
• Dorsal rootlets/roots: afferent 
• Ventral rootlets/roots: efferent 


(3) I...

(1) Communicans:


• White Rami: myelinated preganglionicsympathetic fibers


• Gray Rami: nonmyelinatedpostganglionic sympathetic fibers




(2) Vertebral Canal:


• Dorsal rootlets/roots: afferent


• Ventral rootlets/roots: efferent




(3) Intervertebral Foramen:


• DRG: collection of sensory cell bodies




(4) Spinal Nerve:• Nerve, rami (dorsal/ventral) = MIXED(sensory + motor)

Schematic of Vertebral Branches

Posterior ramus: intrinsic back muscles
Anterior ramus: extrinsic muscle

Posterior ramus: intrinsic back muscles


Anterior ramus: extrinsic muscle