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59 Cards in this Set

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coactive persuasion
Umbrella term for the ways that persuaders might move toward persuadees psychologically by bridging differences so that they will be moved, in turn, to accept the persuaders' position or proposal for action.

Includes:
1. Being receiver oriented rather than source oriented- communicating on the message recipient's terms

2. Being situationally sensitive

3. Combining expressions of interpersonal similarity with manifestations of expertise, knowledge of subject, trustworthiness and the like--responding to the persuadee's desire to be addressed by a credible, not just a likable source

3. Combining expressions of interpersonal similarity with manifestations of expertise, knowledge of subject, trustworthiness and the like- responding to the persuadee's desire to be addressed by a credible, not just a likable, source

4. Building from shared premises but also, if necessary, reasoning from the perspective of the other

5. Moving audiences to the desired conclusion or action by both appearing reasonable and providing psychologically income

6. Using fully the resources of human communication

-Functions somewhat differently in conflict and nonconflict situations (in conflict situations, the object is not always to persuade the antagonist, but to behave competitively or combatively with his or her antagonist to win support from third parties, like in political campaigns)
source-oriented persuasion
-Assumes that all receivers are alike

-Decides for receivers what they need, want, know, value, etc.

-Selects specific persuasive goals for any one occasion on the basis of the persuader's own timetable

-Communicates at receivers by means of a "canned" presentation

-Promotes solutions on the basis of their supposed intrinsic merits
superrepresentation
-Someone who seems similar to the audience, but different in ways that make him or her appear more expert, better informed and more reliable
peritrope
-An ancient rhetorical technique that turns a label around from a positive to a negative
resources of ambiguity
-A huge array of possible choices from which a rhetor can label, categorize, define, illustrate, or compare, contrast and contextualize something

-Coined by Burke
Repetition
-Repeating good or bad points about a person, product, or idea by repeating them again and again

-People of all cultures are comfortable with what is familiar

-Most common example is the use of slogans and jingles in advertising
Omission
-Omitting information about the bad points about a person, product, or idea

-Sometimes called cardstacking (selecting only information that supports the persuader's point of view)

-All communicative involves some omission because not everything can be said about an object, but omission can also be used to deliberately hide or conceal information

-Some other common cases involve telling a half-truth and quoting someone out of context

-Ads often omit drawbacks, hazards or disadvantages and may omit mention of concealed problems
Association
-Linking a person, idea or product to something already either loved/desired by or hated/feared by the intended audience

-Persuaders associate themselves with glittering generalities to make the audience approve or accept without examining the evidence

-Most often, the associations are indirect but they can also be direct
Composition
-Arranging things (i.e. the arrangement of words in a print advertisement or the organization of ideas in a speech) to product a particular effect
Jargon
-The specialized language of a trade or profession

-Often a type of verbal shorthand that allows people to communicate quickly and efficiently within a specialized group

-When used as a downplay tactic, it obscures meaning and makes simple things seem complex

-One of the four types of doublespeak

-Used to downplay weaknesses by making things so chaotic and complex that people give up trying to understand
Euphemism
-A device used to make an unpleasant reality more acceptable

-They become problematic when they are used to deceive

-One of the four types of doublespeak
Bureaucratese
-Also called gobbledygook

-Similar to jargon, except it uses long, complex sentences that sound impressive but actually don't make any sense to overload the audience
Proxemics
-The study of how space and spatial relationships communicate

-4 zones or territories of communication
1) up to 18 inches (intimate distance)
2) 18 inches to 2 feet (personal distance)
3) 4 to 12 feet (social distance)
4) 25 feet or more (public distance)

-Cultures vary in zones of comfort (Latin Americans tend to be comfortable at closer distances than do Northern Europeans), but all cultures seem to place taboos on excessive closeness by strangers and excessive distance by intimates

-Also covers spatial positioning (i.e. who sits where around a table)
-Very important in diplomatic negotiations
-People at the head of a table are perceived as more persuasive, more talkative, more dominant, and more self-confident
Haptics
-The tactile channel of communication, the area of touch

-Rhetorical benefits of touch (more purchases and better tips)

-Can be discomforting for both the toucher and the person being touched
Vocalics
-the auditory channel

-Includes rate, volume, pitch, voice quality, and articulation

-Plays a significant role in projecting images of self and in metacommunicating relational images about how speakers intend their substantive messages to be understood

-Can be outside of persuaders' conscious control
Kinesics
-The visual channel

-Includes posture, gestures, fidgeting, and other body movements, as well as eye behavior and facial expressions

-Smiling and direct eye contact are generally found to increase attractiveness and trustworthiness, but message recipients are also wary of contrived expressions

-The mirroring technique: matching the looks or behavior of the person you are trying to influence
Paralanguage
-The set of nonphonemic properties of speech, such as speaking tempo, vocal pitch, and intonational contours, that can be used to communicate attitudes or other shades of meaning.
Narrowcasting
-Custom-tailoring messages to appeal to specific people
Intensifyng
-Playing up opponents' negatives and your positives by association, repetition and composition
Downplaying
-Playing down opponents' positive and your negatives using omission, diversion, and confusion
Compliance-gaining
-Effecting change in over behavior, not just in beliefs, values, or attitudes

-Most often associated with interpersonal encounters

-Not always a matter of persuasion
-Can also use coercion and material gain to induce people into complying grudgingly
Message-sidedness
-One-sided message presents only the arguments favoring a given proposition

-Both-sided message considers pros and cons
Generative metaphor
-Verbal frame that lead us to see one thing as another in novel ways

-Structure perceptions and may stimulate thought and discovery

-"Paint brush as pump" example
Frame
-The perspectives that people have on issues and the categories that people construct

-Sometimes called schemas
Substantive frame
-Making some aspects of the content of the message more salient than others
Metacommunicational frame
-Making some aspects of the nature of the communication itself more salient than others
Going meta
-Breaking the frame of direct address

-Example of Senate Judiciary Committee hearings on Clarence Thomas' alleged sexual harassment of Anita Hill

-A way of going one level up in communcation by arrogating to oneself the role of interpreter

-Going meta requires skill balancing the potential gains of enhancing their reputations, shaping agendas, and influencing judgments against the dangers of appearing unjustifiably intrusive, disruptive, contentious or evasive

-Must have enough legitimacy relative to their opponent
Reflexive metacommunication
-Interpret, classify, or in other ways comment on one's own messages

-Especially important at the beginning of a speech or essay when writers or speakers generally classify the message, indicate their purpose or purposes in communicating, preview the upcoming substantive message, and metacommunicate explicitly as well as implicitly about themselves in relation to the audience
Responsive metacommunication
-Replies to what others have said in interactive situations

-Frame altering and sometimes frame breaking

-Can comment not just on immediately preceding utterances but also on segments of an interaction, on the interaction as a whole, or on multiple interactions involving different groups of interactants
Frame as metaphor
-The metaphor of a linguistic frame is itself metaphorical (conjures up images of photographic frames, frames in a motion picture, and picture frames

-A frame is one among a number of possible ways of seeing something and a reframing is a way of seeing it differently, in effect changing its meaning

-Just as there are frames around pictures, there are also frames of frames

-Framing is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicative text, in such as way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described.

-Frames reside in 4 locations in a commuicative process, which may or may not coincide
1) The communicator: make conscious or unconscious framing judgments in deciding what to say, guided by frames that organize their belief systems

2) Text: Contains frames, which are manifested by the presence or absence of certain key words, stock phrases, stereotyped images, sources of information, and sentences that provide thematically reinforcing clusters of fact or judgment.

Receiver: Guide the receiver's thinking and may or may not reflect the frames in the text and the the framing intention of the communicator.

Culture: The stock of commonly invoked frames, the empirically demonstrable set of common frames exhibited in the discourse and thinking of most people in a social grouping.
Propositions of fact
-Belief claims for which factual evidence is needed

-3 types
1) Causal claims (X causes Y)
2) Predictive claims (X will happen)
3) Historical claims (X happened)

-Are subordinate to propositions of policy more often than not

-Greater likelihood of agreement on the meaning of key terms than propositions of value
Propositions of value
-Tends to be disagreement about the meaning of key terms

-Take a good deal of time to change

-May be more realistic to place value controversies in a new light, perhaps reframing the issues, perhaps downplaying objectionable values while highlighting values consistent with a proposed policy
Propositions of policy
-A controversial recommendation for action of some sort to be taken in the future

-Certain recurring questions (stock values) are logically relevant

1. Is there a need for change? Is there a problem or deficiency of some type in the present way of thinking or doing things? Persuaders often identify several problems in the current system, rather than focusing on one of them

2. Is the proposed policy workable? In theory, should it remedy the problem or deficiency? Does it meet the need?

3. Is the proposed policy practical? Are the means available for bringing about the change?

4. Is the proposed policy reasonably free from greater evils or is the cure worse than the disease?

5. Is the proposed policy the best available solution?

Persuaders should not just put forth a variety of arguments, but should also use a variety of evidence.

-May be relatively general or specific, positive or negative, and important or unimportant

-Must be debatable in the sense that there is some room for argument about it
Enthymeme
-Invites the reader to supply and endorse premises that are missing from the argument, but left implicit

-A truncated argument that rests on a premise or premises its audience will accept

-Virtually all persuasive discourse is enthymematic
Narrative
-Stories that wrap evidence and reasoning together to paint a vivid picture and drive home an intended conclusion

-Either take a lot of time or cover a limited number of cases

-Can be combined with a series of specific examples as well as statistical generalizations

-Specific examples contain the bare bones of a story (the who, what, where, when, how and possibly the why but without the detail)
-Give the persuader ample opportunity to exhibit the range and variety of cases covered by the factual claim
Statistics
-Quickly cover the territory marked out by a claim

-Can also lead to faulty inferences, as when the sampling is unrepresentative, when the statistical unit is inappropriate, or when a comparison is made between noncomparable data
Causality
-Assumption that something caused something else
Fallacy
-An argument that appears convincing at first, but fails to stand up to careful scrutiny
Straw man fallacy
-Presenting arguments in weakened form so that they may be more easily knocked down
False dichotomy
-Illogically reducing complex matters to an either-or
Ad Hominem fallacy
-Attacking the persauder instead of his or her arguments
False analogy
-Comparing two unlikes as if they were sufficiently alike to treat them as analogous
Common causal fallacy
-Treating one among many causal factors as the sole cause (false cause fallacy)
Post hoc
-Assuming that because something preceded an event, it must be its cause (false cause fallacy)
Principle of reactivity
-If egos are attacked, attitudes harden
Symmetrical conflict
-Conflict between persons of relatively equal power to punish or reward the other
Asymmetrical conflict
-Conflict between antagonists having unequal power
Productive conflict
-
Fear Appeals
Fear Appeals
Definition: Do as I say or terrible things will befall you (ex: Driver's Ed classes
Two operationalizations of fear
1). Toned down: less likely to overwhelm the audience (low fear appeal)
2). Invokes fear in the audience (high fear appeal)
Conclusions: More gruesome messages may not produce actual fear, compared to low fear appeals
-Have to provide people with a way of coping with the fear (in persuasive message itself: convince people that they can change this terrible outcome that may happen) or they may engage in counterproductive coping mechanisms
-Alternative explanation of fear appeals: People may actually believe that fear appeals are more noxious, severe, and harmful than previously believed so the real force behind the fear appeal is the change in attitude, not the arousal of fear. Fear is simply the by-product of the changed belief.
Language intensity
-Language can have emotional and evaluative appeal

Ex: "Leap of Faith"
-Preacher takes advantage of the audience to extort money/charity from them through paralanguage
-You trust people that seem to look inside you and know you
-Person appears to be an expert: trustworthy and reliable

When is Intense Language Persuasive?
• When the persuader has credibility
○ Jonas Nightinggale (the preacher) says that he knows the negatives and sinfulness of drinking alcohol, womanizing, etc. b/c he has been there
• When the audience agrees with the speaker
○ Could turn people off if they don't agree with the speaker and could make them feel defensive (i.e. pit preacher)
• When the audience is already aroused (or else it may shock the audience)
• When the audience is actively participating
Language vividness
Vivid messages
• Appeal to our emotions
• Image provoking
• Concrete language
• Often studied in visual messages
Message Sidedness
Message Sidedness

-One-sided messages
-Two-sided messages: Presents both sides of an argument for strategic reasons (can engage in straight refutation of the other side after presenting it, or show a comparative advantage that their argument has over the other side)

When Message-Sidedness Matters
-Level of education (critical thinking ability, cognitive sophistication): People with less education prefer one-sided message. More intelligent people may be offended and feel like you are trying to take advantage of them with a one-sided message.
-Likely exposure to the other side: if the audience is going to hear the other side anyway, it is better to present it first in the way that you would like to them to think of it
Agreement with speaker: People who already agree with the speaker don't want to be confused b/c they already know what they think
Powerful vs. Powerless speech
Powerful/Powerless Speech
• Powerless speech expresses lack of confidence and belief in one's position
• Implies an unwillingness to take a firm stand
• Ex: vocal pauses/hesitation forms, meaningless repetitions, tag questions (…'isn't it?," "don't you think?"), qualifiers ("I know people may disagree with me on this, but …..")
• Problem is that it infers a state of mind from a behavior assessment
Message Design Logic (MDL)
Goal Structures for MDLs

□ Names refer to how these goals are prioritized within people's messages or whether or not they even exist

□ Minimal goal structures
® Does not appear to pursue a particular goal

□ Unifunctional goal structures
® Only goal seems to be pursued, usually a task goal
® Task goal defines the communication situation

□ Multifunctional goal structures
® Person is not only performing task goal, but also performs other goals as well
® Identity management and something else

□ Any message logic can produce any of the three goal structures

§ Rhetorical perceived to be the most effective, conventional next, and expressive last for preserving a positive relationship with the harasser

§ Rhetorical better than expressive for maintaining relational respect, low tension, and avoiding relational damage

§ Cognitively complex participants viewed multi-functional messages as better for the relationship than less complex participants

§ Users of Rhetorical were perceived as having higher self-esteem than Expressives

§ Messages with more complex goal structures were viewed as more effective than those with less complex messages

§ None of the messages were perceived as effective for stopping harassment in an absolute sense (no interpersonal solution will be effective in stopping harassment on its own)

□ Communication is not the be-all, end-all for dealing with problems. There are some problems that communication can't meet
Expressive Belief MDL
□ Expressive beliefs
® Used by people who view communication as a process of expressing one's thoughts and beliefs
® Competent communication: Saying what you're thinking, saying what you feel
® Users don't distinguish between thought and speech (no filter)
® Not keen on symbolism, metaphor
® Communication expresses an emotion with relatively little problem-solving
® Is clear
Conventional MDL
□ Conventional
® Game that is played cooperatively and according to rules (like Monopoly)
® A means to achieve what you want in the game
® Language is assumed to be understood by everyone in line with the speaker's message
® Culturally understood roles that people play in communication and socially understood rules that govern how we talk to one anther based on those roles
® People should comply with reasonable requests
Rhetorical MDL
□ Rhetorical
® Reflects many of the ideals and values that are implicit, if not explicit, that you learn about in communication classes
® Communication is used to create, maintain and sustain identity (self-identity preservation through communication)
® Our relationship is a function of how we communicate with one another and relate to one another
® Doesn't see a frame or situation as one that is so rigid that we can only interact within that frame
® Change/redefine the situation in a way that suits me and allows me to meet my goals
Comforting Hierarchy
Comforting Hierarchy
1) Denial of individual perspectivity- the speaker condemns the feelings that exist in the situation for the person addressed. Delegitimizes feelings
-Ex: “There’s nothing to be upset about – it’s just an old party.”
-“I’d tell her there have been other parties and she should feel happy about having gone to those.”
“Yeah, but look at your overall GPA. Damn, I wish I had a GPA like yours. A lot of people would.”
2) Implicit recognition of individual perspectivity: The speaker provides some implicit acceptance of and/or positive response to the feelings of others, but does not explicitly mention, elaborate or legitimize those feelings.
-Divert attention: “When I have a party, I’ll invite you.” Or “I know you’re feeling a little down. Hey, let’s blow this pop stand and grab a few blue cups at He’s Not.”
-Non-feeling centered explanation of the situation: “Maybe your invitation got lost in the mail.”
3) Explicit recognition and elaboration of individual perspectivity: Speaker explicitly acknowledges, elaborates, and legitimizes the feelings of the other
Narratives
Narrative Defined (stories, type of discourse structure
• Relates social actors and events through some kind of plot line
• Way for people to make sense of and learn about their world
• Social actors are characterized and given identities and even allied with one another
○ We learn who the good guys and who the bad guys are in the story
○ Examples: Aryan, Jewish national conspiracy

• Some important attributes of narratives
○ Stories are not random, but are social representations
○ Stories are typically presented as the truth
○ Repeated stories may become part of a collected memory of a group
○ Children learn to think of themselves and family members as having certain qualities and attributes by the stories they are told by their parents
○ Narratives are an important form of social influence

• A Sample of Narrative Types
○ Story lines
§ Have a fable-like story to them
§ The story lines incorporate a kind of common scheme and common wording
§ They are impersonal in nature and somewhat generic
§ Ex: They are told and retold by white people to understand the kind of race relations (racism)
§ Tend to be ideological in nature - serve to justify the race relations
§ There are 4 story lines that emerged in his research
1- The past is the past - put the unpleasantries of the past behind us
2- Because I'm a minority, I didn't get a job, I didn't get into college, etc.

• Testimonials
○ Testimony provides the narrator with an aura of authenticities that can be used to gain the sympathy of the people listening to the story
○ The narrator is an important part of the narrative
○ Are primarily useful for serving face/self-presentation reasons
○ Personal stories disclosing knowledge of some who is a racist
○ ??? What is it
§
• Myths
○ Definition: represent a group's collective knowledge
○ Master Narrative - you can find in a lot of different places
○ Reflect essence of a culture (b/c they are found in so many places and artifacts)
○ Found in multiple cultural artifacts
○ Can serve as a type of metalanguage - used to talk about how the cultures talk about language

• Types of myths
○ Identity myths: helps us to explain what makes one cultural group/grouping different from another
§ Ex: what it means to be an American
○ Eschatological myths: narratives that help people to know where the status quo is taking them in the short term and in the long term
§ We understand if we are Christians that we are looking towards a time in the end of the world when Jesus is going to come back, reign for 1000 years, there will be one final battle, and the Christians
○ Societal myths
○ Cosmological myths

• Strategic Purposes of Myths
○ Provides rhetor with authority
○ Gives meaning to the present by connecting it with the past
○ Provide a heightened sense of choice
○ Myths are ideological
○ Myths establish moral codes ("you should live your life this way b/c George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, etc. lived their lives this way)

-Dramatize individual decision-making by depicting struggles between good and evil