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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Why did Louis XVI call the Estates General into session in 1789?

To raise taxes to pay off France's rising debt and the economy was in shambles and he needed ideas of how to fix it.

France was bankrupt and needed tax reform

What happened at the Bastille on 14 July 1789 and why?

There was a revolution of French people who were angry because they believed peasants were being held captive and they wanted to prove they were capable of revolt. Start of French revolution

What form of government did the National Constituent Assembly establish?

Constitutional Monarchy

According to the Declaration of the Rights of Man, what are the most important human rights and what is the source of political sovereignty?

The source of political sovereignty was in the hands of the nation and the most important human rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

What did Olympe de Gouges say about the rights and concerns of unmarried mothers?

a barbarous prejudice [against unmarried women having children] should not force her to hide the truth, so long as responsibility is accepted for any abuse of this liberty in cases determined by the law [women are not allowed to lie about the paternity of their children].

What did the Civil Constitution of the Clergy do?

It made church subject to government rulings, Pope no longer elected priests, instead elected by French citizens causing resentment and it took away independence of the catholic church in France

How did the National Convention change the French government?

Created universal male suffrage, Abolished Monarchy, France declared a Democratic Republic

Why did the Jacobins unleash the Reign of Terror?

To purge the country of the threat within, desire to create a republic of virtue

In what ways did Edmund Burke criticize the philosophes’ theories about natural rights and the social contract?

Humans are not rational and are moved by emotion and prejudiceState does not exist to protect natural rightsThe social contract is infinite (does not belong to us)It is a contract between the living, dead and those yet to be born

10. Which ideals of the French Revolution did Napoleon Bonaparte betray? To which was he faithful? What educational policies did he pursue?

.Established himself as absolute monarch (little political freedom).

Upheld religious freedom Enlightened schools of science and technology

In what ways was Europe ready to sustain an industrial economy by the end of the 18th century.

Rapid growing population

Rapidly growing food supply

Rapidly growing volume of trade (commerce). Europe= center of emerging global trade

Who profited most from the Industrial Revolution and in what ways did they do so?


What were conditions like for workers in the new industrial factories and cities?

very long hours, little pay

What were the political principles of nineteenth-century liberalism?

Liberty, equality, adn justice. Wanted government to give up capital controls on money

According to John Stuart Mill, when could the state interfere with individual freedom?

The state must interfere with another person interfering with another's freedom. He feared western civilizations and that people would turn into industrious sheeps

What did he believe was the greatest threat to the “inward domain of consciousness”?

He believed the government could interfere

Why did the ideals of nationalism threaten the political order of nineteenth-century Europe?

foreign rule

What were the duties Giuseppe Mazzini believed that people owed to their country and to humanity?

- first as regards importance—are towards humanity

- Be your country your Temple

- from time to time give sterile utterance to your belief;

-for united action

What is the title and the significance of Eugene Delacroix’s nationalist painting of 1830?

Liberty Leading the People , commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled King Charles X of France

According to Heinrich von Treitschke, what value did small states possess?

Small states are unable to protect their subjects against external enemies. Moreover, they are incapable of producing genuine patriotism or national pride and are sometimes incapable of culture in great dimensions.

Against which countries did Otto von Bismarck lead Prussia to war in 1864 and 1866? Which German state did not join the German Empire in 1871?

Denmark, Austria and France

How did William Wordsworth's view of nature and that of other romantics differ from that of the Enlightenment?

He believed that science was not a system to be dissected by science but it was the source if of a sublime power that nourished the human soul

How did a portrait by William Blake criticize what he saw as the shortcomings of science?


According to the romantics, how were the deepest truths about life to be found?

In expression and emotions

In The Communist Manifesto, what criticism did Karl Marx offer of the bourgeois understanding of freedom?

unconscionable freedom--Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.

What did Marx believe is the central theme of history?

Private property

What are some of the reasons for the skepticism that characterizes modern culture?

-living in age where cultural consensus is shattered

-accelerated pace of change

-failed promises



What was Charles Darwin's most important contribution to the biology of his day?

theory of natural selection (nature decides who should/shouldn't live)

What were the principal differences between Social Darwinists such as William Graham Sumner and those such as Karl Pearson?

Sumner: let the lesser die, let the fit survivePearson: each group looks after themselves (creates racism) and superior nations/races dominate and exterminate others

In what ways did Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity undermine the common sense view of space and time?

-said gravity is curvature in space time continuum-universe is not uniform-no up or down

How did Werner Heisenberg challenge the conventional understanding of the universe and of how complete our grasp of truth can be?

-found that location and velocity cannot be determined at the same time-stated that you can never know everything, observation pushes things from you

According to Sigmund Freud, what is the largest part of the human mind and what desires lie within it?

-largest part is unconscious (ID)-desire called libido lies inside (2 parts: sex and aggression)

Why did Freud believe that civilized life would always be difficult to bear?

because individuals are never perfectly happy

What is the significance of Pablo Picasso’s “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”?


How did the madman tell the villagers that they ought to live without God?

If God is dead you can only admit the fact and try to live up to it