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26 Cards in this Set

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What forms the foramen triosseum of birds?
Scapula, coracoid bone, clavicle.
What is the signifigance of the foramen triosseum of birds?
Has the supracoracoideus tendon coursing through it to the humerus to raise the wing.
The supracoracoideus m. and pectoralis m. both originate from where?
The keel
Name a and a'
a - the calamus - the featherless part
a' - the rachis - attached to vane

Together they make up the shaft.
What is the air flow through the lungs and air sacs of birds?
First inspiration
Air is drawn in through the nasal cavity, choana, oropharynx, cranial larynx, trachea, lungs and into the caudal air sacs

First expiration
Air from the caudal air sacs goes to the lungs

Second inspiration
Air from the lungs goes to the cranial air sacs

Second expiration
Air from cranial air sacs exits via the trachea
Name these parts of the avian lungs/air sacs
here's the key
Do birds have brachiocephalic veins?
No, not like mammals.
Name:
4, 4', 4'', 6, 6, 9, 10, 35, 36, 53, 53', 58
Cranial vena cavae
Right and left (53 & 53’)
Caudal vena cava (58)
Heart
4 chambers
Aorta (4, 4’, 4’’)
Brachiocephalic a. (6,7)
Common carotid a. (9)
Subclavian a. (10)
External iliac a. (35)
Ischiatic a. (36)
What are the primary blood supplies to the pelvic limbs of birds?
Ischiatic a. (36)

External iliac vv are the major blood drainers from the pelvic limb.
How many lobes do bird kidneys have?
3
What are the two sets of arteries that can help you find the bird kidneys, or that can you can use the kidneys to help find these vessels?
External iliac a. (2)
Located between the cranial and middle lobes of the kidney
Ischiatic a. (3)
Located between the middle and caudal lobes of the kidney
Supplies majority of blood to the pelvic limb
What are the venous drainages from the pelvic limb in the bird?
External iliac v. (11)
Drains majority of blood from the pelvic limb
Ischiatic v. (19)
What vein is the valve of the renal portal system in birds in?
The external iliac v.
What are the two branches of veins coming into the renal portal vv in birds?
the cranial and caudal renal portal veins. The caudal one is identifiable in lab.
What is the primary route of blood flow leaving the kidney when the valve is closed in birds?
Cranial renal v. and caudal renal v. to common iliac v.
What are the venipuncture sites in birds?
External jugular vv. (27, 27’)
--Right is larger than left

Cutaneous ulnar v. (28)
--Branch of brachial v. (17

Medial plantar metatarsal v.
Do birds have renal pelvis?
No - they also don't have a urinary bladder or urethra.
What are the three parts of the cloaca of birds?
Coprodeum - Dilated distal portion of the colon

Urodeum - Entrance of ureters and genital tract

Proctodeum
What is #3?
testes - don't confuse with kidneys!!
Describe the journey of the egg in the chicken
Infundibulum (7 cm)
Thin coating of dense albumen
15 minutes

Magnum (30 cm)
Albumen
3 hours

Isthmus (8 cm)
Albumen and shell membranes
1 hour

Shell gland (“uterus”) (8 cm)
Shell
20 hours

“Vagina”
Passage of egg
Seconds
How does the egg stay clean from being covered with shit?
the vagina everts to the urodeum
What is a bony structure, part of the hyoid apparatus, giving rigidity to the bird tongue?
the entoglossal process
What is the bony structure at the carina in the bird?
The pessulus
What is the siginifigance of breeding guinea pigs young?
Pelvic symphysis dilates for parturition

Females should be bred before 7-10 months to prevent fusion and subsequent dystocia
Which of the pocket pets is susceptible to scurvy?
guinea pigs

Vitamin C is essential and scurvy can develop within 4 days of decreased intake
Hey look at these cheek pouches
yep. those are some big cheek pouches.